Jamaica at 60 St Ann

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JUNE 27, 2022 3 has revealed that since 2016, over $1 billion has been invested in Ocho Rios to enhance the resort town. He also noted that except for commercial developments, all significant improvements taking place in Ocho Rios were being driven by the tourism dollar. “Billions of dollars have been spent in Ocho Rios over the last 10 years in attempting to build out the destination and to ensure destination integrity,” Bartlett said. The minister, who was addressing tourism stakeholders at a joint meeting of the Ocho Rios chapter of the Jamaica Hotel and Tourist Association and the St Ann Chamber of Commerce, at the Moon Palace Jamaica Grande Resort, pointed out that the Tourism Enhancement Fund and the Tourism Product Development Company (TPDCo) have pumped huge amounts of funds into the town, in partnership with other government agencies such as the UDC and the Port Authority of Jamaica. The TPDCo has a $500-million programme with the National Solid Waste Management Authority to ensure that resort areas are cleaned and maintained. Additionally, under the Ocho Rios Improvement Project, some $400 million was allocated to the town for this redevelopment thrust. Of this, $68.2 million was spent on the Turtle River Road and $29 million allocated to refurbishing the cruise ship pier. Another $13 million has been spent enhancing from the pier gate to the marina, and $97 million on the terminal building and parking lot. Bartlett disclosed that a further $286 million was spent as they continued efforts to renew and improve the visitor experience in Ocho Rios. From that sum, $102 million was earmarked for redevelopment of the boardwalk/ promenade from the marina to the parking lot at Ocho Rios Bay Beach, and $184.7 million for the redevelopment of Main Street, fromTurtle River Road to the Ocean Village Shopping Centre. keisha.hill@gleanerjm.com Duty-free shopping is one the lures for tourists in St Ann. North American tourists chilling out at Irie River in St Ann. Tourists about to be elevated on one of the rides at Mystic Mountain in Ocho Rios. JAMAICA AT 60: ST ANN

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JUNE 27, 2022 4 Paul H. Williams/Gleaner Writer JAMA I CA’ S POL I T I CA L Independence status and bauxite mining are two totally different concepts that can be, and have been, polarising in their own corners. In one, some people believe that the country is independent only on paper, but practically it is not, while many believe it is independent in every sense of the word. Bauxite mining, which started in St Ann in the early 1950s by Reynolds Jamaica Mines Limited, which was later joined by other multinational companies, is regarded a double-edge sword, one that has significantly contributed to Jamaica’s economic development, but has also destroyed the natural environment. And there are people who are of the view that bauxite mining has compromised the country’s independence status and sovereignty. They are contending that the governments of Independent Jamaica should have stopped the mining of the country’s natural resources by these big international companies. Our dependence on them to bring much-needed foreign exchange into the country does not say much for us as an independent nation and our ability to fend for ourselves. When the question of whether bauxite mining in Jamaica by international companies is compromising Jamaica’s independence and sovereignty status was posed to Facebook group, Cockpit Country Warriors, some of the shorter responses were: “Yes!”, “Jamaicans don’t have a say in our governance”, “Yes, it is a betrayal of our sovereignty”, “Sure”, “It just wrong”, “So sure”, “Of course, most definitely”, “Indeed!” and “Yes, but who allows it?”. DaleWilson said, “It’s the government that allows the companies into the country. The government is the people, they elect their leaders. If the people refuse their social responsibility, the international companies will arm twist the leaders by threatening the debts the country has…WhenMichael Manley was the leader, he kept the debt low, so Jamaica controls their destiny and preserve their Independence.” Bosbert Thar was right behind him with: “Mining in the Cockpit Country is surely a violation of your sovereignty. What rights do you have in regards to what they’re doing what say do you have in regards to their actions? No mining should be conducted in the Cockpit Country, it means too much to our country.” While Judith Peart is saying, “The government is to be held accountable, because they are responsible for allowing these companies to destroy the Cockpit. All there is to this is greed and destruction”, Stafford Hall is maintaining that, “The people ultimately are the ones who allow the kind of one-sided exploitation that takes place by re-electing those who lied to them in the first place!” Outside of the wider context of Jamaica’s political independence and sovereignty, people are saying bauxite mining has: eroded their own personal independence, displaced hundreds of people, destroyed family traditions, and wiped out the agricultural sector in some of the places where extensive mining was done. And though much of the dugout pits have been reclaimed for agriculture, including cattle-rearing, the great majority of them is left idle and useless, and the food that is cultivated therein is full of heavy metal which is harmful to their health. The region is punctuated with these pits, a telling story of the economic rape and pillage of the Cockpit Country. Long-time Lime Tree Garden resident and retired broadcast journalist, Al Gallimore, is a seasoned campaigner against the impact of bauxite mining. “As Jamaica celebrates its 60th Independence anniversary, up here in the mining community of southwest St Ann, we have our own heritage sites to celebrate. We are standing at one of the heritage sites. It’s a pit, one of the biggest pits. It’s about 600 feet long by 300 feet wide, and about 500 feet deep, and 40 years old, and we have been dumping carcasses of cars and trucks and dogs in it … for 40 years, and I’m sure, for the next 40 years it will still have space,” he said. He also told The Gleaner that bauxite mining in southwest St Ann has made the people desperate, destitute and dependent. He painted a picture of gloom, of the death of subsistence farming, the annihilation of the citrus industry, and the disappearing of rare birds, among other effects. With no steady streams of income, people have resorted to praedial and other types of larceny as their main source of getting money. Women are going around begging money to send their children to school. The only work available to them is to stand in the paths, signalling the drivers of heavy-duty equipment with green and red flags. The garbage dump at Tobolski is the place where people, animals, birds and other creatures compete for food. Eighty years after aluminium ore was identified in the soil at Phoenix Park, 70 years after the first shipment was made from the island at Ocho Rios, and 60 years after Jamaica’s political Independence, many people in St Ann are regretting the discovery of ‘red gold’ for it has brought wide-scale sufferation to them and destruction of their lives, compromising Jamaica’s Independence, and their dignity. Bauxite mining has made people destitute and dependent This plaque mounted at Phoenix Park, near Moneague in St Ann, tells the story of the discovery of bauxite in Jamaica, and the beginning of the bauxite industry. A section of a mined-out bauxite pit at Lime Tree Garden in St Ann. PHOTOS BY PAUL H. WILLIAMS jamaica at JAMAICA AT 60: ST ANN

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JUNE 27, 2022 5 JAMAICA AT 60: ST ANN Keisha Hill/Senior Gleaner Writer ST ANN’S Bay, despite being the capital of St Ann, continues to lag behind the resort town of Ocho Rios in several areas of development, including job creation and business development. Ocho Rios has taken over as the commercial centre of not just St Ann, but the northern region of Jamaica. As a result, more opportunities are opening up in Ocho Rios. Entrepreneur Desmond Lindo, said St Ann’s Bay doesn’t have the scope to develop, and what has been happening is that some persons in St Ann’s Bay would rather do business in Ocho Rios. A number of factors, he said, has influenced the migration of people to Ocho Rios. “There are numerous employment opportunities in the Ocho Rios area, especially in the tourism sector, as there are several hotels, attractions, shopping plazas, restaurants, and other establishments,” Lindo said. However, St Ann’s Bay as capital, is home to most government offices and agencies, including the Registrar General’s Department, the Inland Revenue Department, the NationalWater Commission and the Jamaica Public Service Company. However, the National HousingTrust was relocated to Ocho Rios some years ago. Lindo believes that both towns can work cohesively with each other and the historical benefits of each town must be maintained. Information from the Statistical Institute of Jamaica shows the growth of the population of the respective towns and how it has shifted over the years. For the period 1982 to 1991, St Ann’s Bay recorded a 19.8 per cent population growth, moving from 7,496 to 8,983. For the same period, Ocho Rios’ growth was sluggish, moving just 3.95 per cent, from 6,618 to 6,880 However, during the following decade, there was a dramatic change in growth pattern that saw Ocho Rios’population outstripping that of the capital. Figures for 2001 show that while the population of St Ann’s Bay grew by 16 . 2 per cent to 10,441, Ocho Rios’ population went into overdrive, spiralling by 129 per cent to stand at 15,769. This is an increase of 8,889 over 10 years, or an average of 2.4 persons moving to Ocho Rios daily for 10 years straight. With the development of the Edward Seaga Highway improving access between Kingston and Ocho Rios, there is also an increase in economic activities between both the town centres of Mammee Bay and Ocho Rios. The Urban Development Corporation (UDC) has been moving to sell more land for commercial development of the secondary town to reduce congestion in Ocho Rios. It has placed on the market three lots totalling nearly four acres which it says are ideal for the development of small to medium-size commercial operations subject to the approval of the St Ann Municipal Corporation. The sizes of the UDC lots range from0.68 acre to just over two acres. They are located at the roundabout intersection to the Edward Seaga Highway on the coastal main road from Ocho Rios to Drax Hall at Mammee Bay, immediately across from the entrance to Old Fort Bay which is an upper-income gated seaside community. A UDC spokesperson said the development falls under its plans for designated areas in St Ann, which includes Ocho Rios, Roaring River and Mammee Bay. The development will take place along the route, as the demand for available commercial lands has increased. This divestment of the lots allows the UDC to further support the economic development within St Ann and specifically the Mammee Bay area. Mammee Bay was developed, primarily, as a suburban residential area to support the housing needs of Ocho Rios. It now boasts a mixture of large chain resorts, villas, residential and commercial properties. It is envisioned that the development of the lots will serve the commercial needs of the area and boost employment opportunities for the surrounding communities. keisha.hill@gleanerjm.com St Ann’s Bay continues to lag behind Ochi The famous clock on Main Street in St Ann’s Bay. FILE jamaica at

Paul H. Williams/Gleaner Writer THE PARISH of St Ann is sprawling and green; a giant garden it is, with nature exploding into a beauty unrivalled in the land. Was it the reason why Columbus returned and stayed for one year? You might never know, but the story is that in this enchanted garden on the Rock, he took a 12-month nap, resting his weary head, legs and back. Imagine him lying in a little corner by himself, reflecting on his misfortunes and the ire from Isabel and Ferdinand of Spain upon his return. He falls asleep, but is jolted from his reverie by the screeches and chirps of crickets and whistling frogs. He listens to the sounds of water to soothe his disillusioned soul. The garden is overrun by bubbling brooks and lazy streams, some of which disappear below the surface into subterranean caves and caverns. The ones that remain on the surface meander through the rugged limestone hills into the Ocho Rios region where there is water gushing everywhere, but not a drop to drink. And Ocho Rios is not true; there are many more than eight rivers snaking through parks and mini gardens of arresting flowers and swaying trees where hummingbirds build their nests, and the breeze through the leaves sing you a lullaby ever so divine. In this garden of wood and water, there are also pools, smack in the heart of nature, that break the flow of rivers, such as Irie River, which runs through a ravine at Bonham Spring, near the district of Exchange. It’s like a small rainforest in the garden. Apart from its natural attributes, it has man-made facilities that help to make it an ideal picnic, cook-out and camping spot. The roar of Dunn’s River Falls and the sparkle of Little Dunn’s River say it all. They thunder to the coast in a rush to meet the sea, ignoring your cries of wait for me please. They are putting on a show, leaving you breathless, stunned and cool. It’s a garden of much geographical diversity. From the southern hills and forests, the land rambles down to the sea. Among the greenery bucolic vistas dot the space where people live, love, and laugh in unpretentious ways. Its northern end is full of coves and bays where sundrenched beaches are washed by the azure Caribbean Sea. The journey along the NorthSouth Highway is replete with scenes of rolling hills and gaping valleys. Over yonder the sights of fog and mist you cannot resist, and sometimes they come closer, pulling you into their smoky embrace, shrouding you in mystique and alarm at the same time. The garden is transformed into a fairy wonderland. But, where are the fairies? Ferns are bountiful in Fern Gully, one of the most famous parts of the garden. It is mesmerising and engaging, keeping you staring at the variety of species as you twist and turn around its curves. You feel dwarfed by the giant trees reaching up to the sky for the sunlight to keep them alive. Whoever or whatever made St Ann was thinking of another garden – Eden. St Ann is Eden in Jamaica. But, what’s missing? Adam and Eve, perhaps … NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JUNE 27, 2022 6 The garden that is St AnnA section of the Turtle River Park in Ocho Rios, St Ann. FILE PHOTOS The river that runs through a property called Rio Chico along the Ocho Rios to Mammee Bay main road in St Ann adds to the paradisical allure of the place. The sparkling cascades of the beautiful and enchanting ‘Little Dunn’s River Falls’ near Mystic Mountain in St Ann. People chilling in the garden at Irie River, near Exchange, St Ann. jamaica at The garden is overrun by bubbling brooks and lazy streams, some of which disappear below the surface into subterranean caves and caverns. JAMAICA AT 60: ST ANN

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JUNE 27, 2022 7 Keisha Hill/Senior Gleaner Writer JAMAICA’S BAUXITE and alumina industry was launched in the hills just north of Ocho Rios, St Ann. This development started the metamorphosis of the tiny fishing village, that the town became renowned for in the early pre-independence years. At Phoenix Park near Moneague, the genesis of the bauxite industry is commemorated by a roadside plaque made from the first aluminium cast from Jamaican ore. The story goes that the alumina content of St Ann’s red dirt was discovered when the original owner, Sir Alfred d’Costa, became distressed with the poor condition of his cattle and sent abroad samples of the soil for analysis and the high bauxite content was revealed. According to the plaque, ‘Giving to Jamaica a new industry and to the countries of the free world a new resource against aggression a reference, perhaps to the extensive use of aluminium in fighter planes and missiles’. On June 5, 1952 the first shipment of bauxite was made by Reynolds Jamaica Mines from its port in Ocho Rios to the parent company’s alumina plant at Hurricane Creek, Arkansas. After that first shipment of bauxite in 1952, production increased rapidly, and by 1957 Jamaica had become the leading bauxite producer in the world, with a production capacity of nearly five million tonnes of bauxite per year, almost a quarter of all the bauxite mined in the world in that year. The Jamaican bauxite was very fine-grained and did not behave like other bauxite elsewhere in the world. All three companies – Alcan, Reynolds and Kaiser – had to develop appropriate technology to economically refine Jamaican ore into alumina and were quite successful in processing the low monohydrate hematite ore. Alcan built a second refinery at Ewarton, St Catherine, which began producing alumina in 1959. The plant’s initial design capacity called for 250,000 tonnes of alumina per year, with provision for further expansion in its design. The production of alumina increased and by 1968, Alcan had brought the capacity of its two refineries to 1.1 million tonnes a year. During the 1970s, there were important changes in the ownership of the industry and in its contribution to the Jamaican economy. Although the mineral had been owned by the State since colonial times, the companies exploiting it were wholly owned subsidiaries of North Americanbased aluminium companies. The government purchased 51 per cent of Kaiser and Reynolds, and repurchased most of the ore reserve lands formerly owned by the companies. In return, the companies were granted 40-year mining leases. In 1980, after lengthy negotiations, the Jamaican Government acquired all the land owned by Reynolds, plus 50 per cent of the company’s mining assets to create a partnership, with Reynolds continuing to manage the operation. Early in 1984, however, Reynolds announced their intention to pull out of Jamaica and by mid-1984 they were gone, an abrupt end to an important chapter of local history. To date, the Jamaican Government has been unable to find another joint venture partner or foreign investor to reopen those mines. The pier at the west of town is the only reminder of Reynolds Jamaica Mines, once the economic base of Ocho Rios. Construction of their deep-water pier began in the late 1940s. The Reynolds pier in Ocho Rios is still used to ship sugar, high-grade limestone and is more frequently used by cruise ships when there are more than two of them in port. By law, mined-out bauxite land must be restored. In theprocess, theopenpits left afterminingarebulldozed, filled, graded and covered with at least six inchesof the topsoil scrapedoffwhenminingstarted. After numerous experiments with livestock, forestry, orchards, etc, the verdict was that the landwas best suited to its traditional use – raising beef cattle. On Reynolds farms, the planting of high-protein grasses, the feedlot system and the introduction of the Santa Gertrud’s cattle produced great results. keisha.hill@gleanerjm.com How bauxite mining changed St Ann On June 5, 1952, the first shipment of bauxite was made by Reynolds Jamaica Mines Limited from its port in Ocho Rios, St Ann, to the parent company’s alumina plant at Hurricane Creek, Arkansas. PHOTO BY PAUL H. WILLIAMS jamaica at Paul H. Williams/Gleaner Writer IT IS said that Christopher Columbus came ashore Xaymaca inMay 1494 at what is now called Discovery Bay, on the north coast of present-day St Ann. There were many Taino settlements in the area. He returned on his fourth voyage in 1503, but his old, tired, and worm-infested vessels could not take him back fromwhere he had come. Hewas strandedat aplacehe called SantaGloria (SaintAnn’sBay) fromJune 1503 toJune1504.Withassistance from the Tainos, he set sailed for Cuba, and beyond, andwasnever to return to the Caribbean. Other Spaniards, including his son Diego, did however return in 1510 with the intention of colonising the islandas aSpanishpossession.The first Spanish settlement, and eventual first capital of Jamaicawas established at Sevilla la Nueva, now called Seville; the first Spanish governor was Juan de Esquivel. After theydecimated theTainopopulationbyvariousmeans, theSpaniards imported Africans through the transatlantic trade in Africa, which was perpetuated by the British. The first sugar millson the islandwereestablishedby theSpaniards in Sevilla la Nueva before 1526, and for nearly150years Spain ruled the islandnonchalantly, and complacently. While they were so doing, the British arrived, first in 1655, and wrested the island fromthe Spaniards, who did not go downwithout a fight, as lopsided as it was. They officially ceded the island to the British in 1660. St Ann was one of the six original English parishes, whichwere actually a series of church enclaves. And for 302 years Britain ruled Jamaica, which, at one time when sugar was king, was an important jewel in its crown. That jewel lost its gloss over the years, and in 1962 it finally fell out, but it is dangling by a thin thread. The Britishmonarch, represented by the governor general, is still the head of state of Jamaica. St Ann, then, can easily be regarded as the place where the colonisation of Jamaica started, and is said to be one of the island’s largest parishes; perhaps the largest. It is dotted with old plantations and other historical ruins, and is mainly an agrarian region. Tourism and bauxite mining are also major income earners. It is home to many of Jamaica’s finest hotels and other accommodations, like the world-famous Dunn’s River Falls. The popular resort town of Ocho Rios has surpassed St Ann’s Bay as the biggest andmost popular town in the parish. Other places of interest include the Our Lady of Perpetual Help walls, St Ann Parish Church, St Ann’s Bay Fort, Buxton Village, Clarksonville, Sturge Town, BromleyGreatHouse, CardiffHall Great House, Liberty Hill Great House, Mount Plenty Great House, Ramble Great House, Seville Great House, York Castle Great House, Edinburgh Castle, 32 Market Street, Seville Heritage Park, Cave Valley Chimney, Drax Hall Waterwheel,Moneague Inn, Columbus Park, Cranbrook Forest, Dolphin Cove, Fern Gully, White River, Goshen Wilderness and Irie River Blue Hole. QUESTIONS 1. What was the name Columbus gave to St Ann’s Bay? 2. Which European established St Ann as a town? 3. In what year was the first courthouse in St Ann built? 4.What is St Ann popularly known as? 5. Where in St Ann is the highest point located? 6. Which of these districts is not in St Ann – Lime Hall, Chigwell, Gibraltor or Sturge Town? 7. Which national hero was born in St Ann? 8. What are the parishes that surround St Ann. 9. True of false, Ocho Rios is the capital of St Ann? 10. Who is the mayor of St Ann’s Bay? 11. Who is the custos of St Ann? 12. What does Ocho Rios mean in Spanish? 13. Inwhich county is St Ann situated? 14. Who was the village of Drax Hall named after? 15. Which high school in St Ann won Jamaica’s first ‘Girls’ Champs’? 16. In which community is the Bob Marley Mausoleum located? 17. Travelling from south, which community would you reach first, Alexandra or Aboukir? 18. In the area of religion, what is Watt Town known for? 19. Name the place in St Ann that is widely regarded as Jamaica’s second free village. 20. Which James Bond movie was shot at Cotter’s Wharf? SEE ANSWERS ON PAGE 15 ST ANN TRIVIA JAMAICA AT 60: ST ANN

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JUNE 27, 2022 9 NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JUNE 27, 2022 8 Keisha Hill/Senior Gleaner Writer DUNN’S RIVER Falls is believed to have been the site of the famous battle of Las Chorreras, fought in 1657 between the Spanish and the English for possession of the island. It is characterised by its crystal clarity, unending flow and a swift descent, punctuated by rapid cascades and waterfalls which pour directly into the Caribbean Sea. The falls extends across more than 183 metres, or 600 feet, foaming as it collects into crystal-clear pools. Following the English victory in 1657, Charles Pryce became the first owner of the property under British rule. This site later became part of the 276-acre Belmont property, which was acquired by the Government in 1972 to provide for future development of recreational and park facilities. The Belmont property was then entrusted to the Urban Development Corporation, which manages the property for Jamaicans and visitors from all over the world to enjoy. Charles Johnson, an American tourist, and his family, were happy that they were visiting Dunn’s River Falls for the first time. They were excited to climb the falls, and indicated that they would tell their friends at home to visit the facility when they come to the island. “The place is so beautiful. First of all, we love nature! We have visited several countries, but Jamaica is the best. This is not our first time in Jamaica, or St Ann. We have always heard about Dunn’s River Falls, and it is just as beautiful as we were told,” Johnson said. An entire day can be spent at Dunn’s River Falls and Park, and it’s great fun for the entire family. Climbing the falls might be too lofty a task for most children under five. However, they can have their own fun in the splash pad, a mini water park designated for kids. It is complete with waterslides and an exciting feature where kids can get dunked with pouring water from the revolving buckets above. A Jamaican, Anthony Townsend, and his wife Gloria, were also visitors to the falls. They have visited several times, but have found each trip to be exhilarating. “Let me tell you something, this place is one of the best in the world. When we finish climbing the falls, we feel so fresh and peaceful. We go down to the beach afterwards and just enjoy ourselves. We really enjoy coming here,”Townsend said. Also high above the sun-drenched beaches and bustling fray of Ocho Rios, the lush Konoko Falls and Park are filled with innumerable species of tropical flora and birds, and streams that tumble into gentle waterfalls. The excellent on-site museum traces the history and culture of Jamaica’s original inhabitants, the Tainos. Konoko Falls at Shaw Park Estate is about five minutes from the town of Ocho Rios. It was previously known as the Coyaba River Garden. The property also has a wide array of facilities, including a petting zoo, botanical garden, koi pond, museum, mini zoo, aviary, restaurant, grill, souvenir shop, and, of course, amenities like clean restrooms and changing rooms. You can explore at your leisure. The waterfall has a staircase built alongside it, so you can walk to the bottom and get back to the top by climbing the falls instead. Similar to Dunn’s River Falls, this waterfall is made up of several cascades hewn from limestone rock, the power of the river carving out a picturesque path after several centuries. keisha.hill@gleanerjm.com DUNN’S RIVER FALLS AND PARK Konoko Falls in Ocho Rios. The kid-friendly section at Dunn’s River Falls and Park. Visitors climbing Dunn’s River Falls in St Ann. FILE PHOTOS Children enjoying the section that was created for them at Dunn’s River Falls. The beautiful Konoko Falls. CONTRIBUTED jamaica at Great fun for the entire family “The place is so beautiful. First of all, we love nature! We have visited several countries, but Jamaica is the best. This is not our first time in Jamaica, or St Ann. We have always heard about Dunn’s River Falls, and it is just as beautiful as we were told” JAMAICA AT 60: ST ANN JAMAICA AT 60: ST ANN

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JUNE 27, 2022 10 Paul H. Williams/Gleaner Writer AS THE Gleaner team was about to enter the town centre of Claremont, St Ann, we saw a Rastafarian man jerking meat in front of a shop. Interesting, so we stopped. A big pot of soup was also bubbling. That one was for the vegetarians. When he was told we were looking for someone who was born in 1962, he uttered, “Yea, man, mi a Independence baby”. The search was over. The pencil-slim chef was born on September 1, 1962. By the time he was 14, he was creating a stir in his home and at school. “Was the first Rasta at Ferncourt, 1975,” he revealed while nodding towards the hill in front of us. There it was, Ferncourt High School, where two of his siblings, too, attended. One went to St Andrew Technical High School and another to Excelsior High School. “Mi inna school. Second grade mi start grow mi hair. A pure fight, man. Mi knowwhat mi want. Mama? Daddy? Daddy all draw himgun one day, say him ago shoot mi. Give mi money every day fi go trim. And mi tek it and cook and eat food. Mi and dem bwoy,” he recalled. His conversion was inspired by the persecution of Rastafarians and negative things that he had heard about King James and some other famous Europeans, he said. Some of the books andmagazines he was reading at Ferncourt were also a factor, and so was the CopticTimes, published by the Coptic Church, a radical branch of Christianity. “Mi read mi book an den mi realise say a false prophet dem a gi wi,”he said. Yet, despite the opposition at school and in the community to the wearing of dreadlocks, there was not much discrimination at Ferncourt. He has fond memories of the school that folklore says was so named because of the ferns that used to grow around the tennis court of the compound. There was mischief in his eyes when he mentioned a certain teacher who had a potent case of halitosis. Becoming a Rastafarian also meant changing his diet significantly. So, the pencil-slim chef has not eaten meat since he was 14. The transition was easy as he was already turned off from the sight of blood and raw meat, his father being a butcher. “It turn me off, I couldn’t even swallow the beef. Couldn’t swallow it, chaw it all day and couldn’t swallow it. So, mi say ‘this is not for me’,”he recalled while attending to the chicken on the grill. Because of his new diet, his mother gave him an oil stove so that he could stop cooking his peas on her gas stove. “And mi live fi see the day when doctor put mi madda on the same diet that mi deh pon all my life,”ListonWhite, the Rastaman, recollected. She had a slew of lifestyle diseases, which doctor’s medications could not cure. “When Mama dead, a waa lickle string hold up her heart. Every organ in her body dead. When Mama dead is a lickle pharmacy left at the house… three different doctor a give three different set a medication.” One of the values he was taught by his mother was to share, to cook extra food in case somebody happened by. So, from time to time, he does just that, especially with food that is not sold off. “A love, man. Mama teach wi about the value of loving people. Fi mi madda was a great teacher. Mama was the teacher. Mama teach wi so much,” he said in a subdued tone and with a faraway look in his eyes. As it relates to Jamaica’s political Independence, themanwho returned to Jamaica 10 years ago after spending 37 years overseas said, “Nothing going on, but we still a enjoy weself … .Wi no independent yet…member say is the Queen still governing ….Wi can’t be independent until the Queen let go, until wi onwi own,”the manwho excelled in English and accounts at Ferncourt High said. And, for his own milestone, his face lit up when he said, “This yah year yah, 60, feel sweet, and mi fit and strong same way. How much young people a live fi seemi age.”He is having a party on September 1, but is uncertain about how August 6 is going to unfold. In his own spirit of independence, White said he had been making his own money from he was a “lickle bwoy” in school, as he believes in working for his bread. His father, being a businessman, was a trailblazer for him. One of his wishes is for the freeing up of lands so that the “lazy” youths can find something to do. White himself would do very well with some of the idle lands that are all over the parish. Apart from selling chicken, festivals, fish, vegetables, soup and conch along Main Street in his ‘Off The Grill’ business, he cultivates a variety of produce, some of which are ingredients for the soup he sells. He has been cultivating yam, pak choi, arrowroot, beans, etc, since he was in school. When he was asked why he, a Rastaman, sells meat, including goat meat, for a living, he said he sells to those who want it. There is a demand, and money is a big factor. “But, Rasta no chase down money and vanity?”was the next question. “Den a wha wi a go do without money?” was the quick retort that came with a puzzled look. Theman who gets up at five every morning continued, “One ting mi kno, mi no have no regret in life for nothing a do. Mi live an learn. Mi can’t correct the mistakes, cause no man no perfect. One ting mi know, mi at peace wid God … . Mi at peace wid miself. Mi all right. Mi just want moremoney. More money mi want right now. More money mi waa fi live.” Healthy Independence baby wants more money and land Liston White of Claremont, St Ann has not eaten meat since he was 14 years old, but that does not stop him from selling it to those who eat it. Liston White of Claremont, St Ann grows his own food, some of which are ingredients for his vegetable soups. PHOTOS BY PAUL H. WILLIAMS jamaica at JAMAICA AT 60: ST ANN

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JUNE 27, 2022 11 Paul H. Williams/Gleaner Writer FROM THE sea, the land rises gently to heights where the sea itself can be seen. It was teeming with Tainos when Columbus returned to Jamaica in 1503 on his fourth trip to the West Indies. It is said that he called the place Santa Gloria, where he was stranded for one full year. His living conditions were gross and unbearable. Eventually, with the assistance of Taino paddlers, Columbus and two of his crewmen fled to Hispaniola, en route to Spain. In 1510, his son, Diego, returned to the island with the first group of Spanish colonists. Near St Ann’s Bay, they established the first Spanish settlement in the country and called it Sevilla la Nueva (New Seville). The central point of Spanish colonisation in Jamaica shifted to Spanish Town after the Spaniards found the swampy conditions at New Seville unhealthy. However, Sevilla la Nueva remained a major Spanish settlement. The Spaniards lost control of the island between 1655 and 1670, to the British. Over time, Santa Gloria evolved into St Ann’s Bay, a little fishing village but a major commercial port. Remnants of colonial-days warehouses are still located near the sea. Today, St Ann’s Bay, perched on the side of a steep mountain, is an old town, one of the oldest in Jamaica. Infrastructurally, it has not grown significantly. It still has centuries-old buildings, but does not exude Old World charm. Narrow and oft-congested streets are prone to traffic gridlocks, especially on Fridays and Saturdays. In the evenings, it goes to sleep and, in the day, it is bustling and sizzling under the sun. It is in dire need of expansion, and is now playing second fiddle to the tourist mecca of Ocho Rios as the most popular town in the parish. Yet, it is still the seat of the parochial government, and overshadows all other towns in the parish with its historical value. It was the first place where Europeans lived in Jamaica, outlasted Sevilla la Nueva, has moved from an idyllic fishing valley to capital status, and is the birthplace of Jamaica’s first national hero, Marcus Garvey, who lived at Winders Hill. Historic St Ann’s Bay A section of a congested street in St Ann’s Bay. One of the colonial warehouses that are still standing in St Ann’s Bay. PHOTOS BY PAUL WILLIAMS The gothic-looking St Ann’s Bay Parish Church building. The St Ann’s Bay Police Station. The St Ann’s Bay court building is dated 1866. jamaica at JAMAICA AT 60: ST ANN

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JUNE 27, 2022 12 Paul H. Williams/Gleaner Writer THE PARISH of St Ann can easily be regarded as the place where Jamaica, as an island state, started. It is where the Europeans first landed, where their first settlement was built, where the genocide of the indigenous Tainos unfolded, where the Africans were first enslaved, and thus, perhaps where the institutions of British colonialism and slavery in Jamaica were established. In 1962, the British government released Jamaica from its colonial grasp. It meant that it was no longer going to manage the dayto-day affairs of the country. Yet, the Queen remains head of state. This has left the country in a sovereignty conundrum which many people cannot fathom. The country has gone through five major political periods – slavery, Emancipation, Federation, Independence and post-Independence. And, long before political Independence, there was a man who went around advocating for the independence, self-reliance and uplifting of black people the world over. He was born on August 17, 1887, as Malcus Mosiah Garvey at 32 Market Street, St Ann’s Bay. His first name was subsequently changed to Marcus. His father was a stonemason, while his mother, Sarah Jane Richards, was a domestic worker. Garvey Jr had a normal childhood. In addition to his black friends, he had white neighbours, playmates and classmates with whom he played cricket and baseball. He was educated eventually by many sources: private tutors, public schools, high schools and colleges. While still attending primary school, Garvey became a printer’s apprentice in the shop of his godfather, Alfred E. Burrowes, who was a highly educated and alert man. In 1901, Garvey left school at age 14 to work as a printer’s apprentice. Garvey’s foray into political activism started while he was working in the printing department of P.A. Benjamin Manufacturing Company in Kingston. He was 18, and began to yearn for service of some kind. At age 21, he started his very first newspaper, TheWatchman, which ceased publication after only three issues. In 1910, at the age of 23, Marcus Garvey left Jamaica for South and Central America and the West Indies, in search of better wages, and to see whether the situation in those places for black people was the same as in Jamaica. It was worse. Garvey returned to Jamaica near the end of 1911, but soon after he left for Europe to see what was going on with black people there. While living in London, Garvey toured several countries in Europe in 1913 and witnessed the poor treatment of black workers in all these countries. He also heard about the hardship facing black people in the USA. Garvey became agitated, and perhaps saw himself as the one to take black people out of their sorry circumstances. He decided to leave England. On June 17, 1914, he boarded the SS Trentat Southampton to Jamaica. In his cabin, Garvey thought long and hard, and came up with the idea of establishing the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities (Imperial) League (UNIA/ACL). Within five days of his July 15, 1914 arrival in Jamaica, Garvey formed the UNIA/ACL, in association with Enos J. Sloly and about four others, with the main purpose of uniting all Africans worldwide to establish a country and government of their own. The UNIA/ACL was launched fittingly on Emancipation Day, August 1, 1914, in Kingston. Yet, he was to face bitter opposition from every stratum of the Jamaican society. Garvey visited the US in March 1916. It was a decision that was to propel the UNIA as the biggest and greatest pan-African movement in the world. Its members and branches proliferated, likewise the opposition towards him. In the zeal for independence and self-reliance among black people, Garvey and the UNIA establishedmany affiliates and businesses. Some of them were The Watchman and The Negro World newspapers, Liberty Hall, the Black Cross Nurses, the African Legion, the African Motor Corps, The Juveniles, the Negro Factories Corporation, the Universal Steam Laundry (including the Universal Tailoring and Dressmaking Department at 62 West 142nd St, New York), three grocery stores, a printing press, a doll factory, a hotel and two restaurants in Harlem, the Black Cross Navigation and Trading company, and the Black Star Line Shipping Company. By 1922, the UNIA had 900 branches with an approximate membership of six millions. The more the UNIA expanded, the more the United States authorities put Garvey under scrutiny. There was also much opposition from within the UNIA. In January 1922, Garvey was arrested and charged with mail fraud. He was convicted in June 1923 and sentenced to five years in prison. On December 2, 1925, Garvey was deported to Jamaica, where the opposition and sentiments against himwere still strong. He left Jamaica for England in March 1935, vowing never to return. On June 10, 1940, he died a broken man. Despite his controversial conviction, deportation and painful death in England, Garvey’s UNIA/ACL, created to better the lot of black people, is still up and running in many parts of the world with its message of self-reliance. St Ann, then, can be credited for producing the man whose campaign for, and message of, personal independence predated Jamaica’s political Independence in 1962. Of St Ann, Marcus Garvey and Independence This plaque speaks for itself. From his birthplace at 32 Market Street in St Ann’s Bay, National Hero Marcus Mosiah Garvey evolved to establish the greatest pan-African movement in the world. This spot at 32 Market Street in St Ann’s Bay is adorned with the colours of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, which Marcus Garvey established in Jamaica in 1914 immediately after returning from a trip to Europe. FILE PHOTOS jamaica at JAMAICA AT 60: ST ANN

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JUNE 27, 2022 13 Keisha Hill/Senior Gleaner Writer THERE ARE over 25,000 registered farmers in St Ann contributing to over 1,500 hectares of domestic food crops and 45 acres of protected agricultural greenhouses. Since independence, farmers have been encouraged to increase production, based on the implementation of various projects and programmes initiated through the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. One of the main programmes benefiting farmers in the parish is the ministry’s Production Incentive Programme, which is aimed at driving sustainable expansion of selective crops to facilitate the recovery of the agricultural sector to overcome the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. As of February 25, some $7.9 million has been allocated to the parish for sweet and yellow yam, dasheen and hot pepper production. Other components include the procurement of vegetable seeds, onions, Irish potatoes, pineapple suckers, greenhouse renovations and drought mitigation assistance through water tank and drip irrigation. The Rura l Agr i cul tura l Development Authority (RADA) St Ann extension team also continues to provide group training, virtual linkages and technological transfers to the farmers in the parish. Some 544 training programmes for 2,794 farmers were held in the last financial year. However, there has been a general decline in the production of traditional crops for the parish, such as bananas, coconuts and pimento. One of the major factors, apart from disease and natural disasters, that is believed to be responsible for the suspected decline in this sector, is the reduction in acreage of lands for agriculture in the parish. As a result, Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries Pearnel Charles Jr; minister without portfolio in the Ministry of Economic Growth and JobCreation, RobertMontague; state minister in theMinistry of Agriculture and Fisheries FranklinWitter; as well as members of parliament James Robertson and Lisa Hanna led a tour of the parish recently. Agronomist at RADA, Locksley Waites, acted as the tour’s technical leader. The first stop was at farmer Lawrence Patterson’s properties in Hinds Town, St Ann, where Irish potatoes and sweet pepper are cultivated on over 100 hectacres. “The ministry is focused on giving our support to make sure that our farmers are successful. We will do all that we can to make sure that this production zone is productive,” he said. RADA will also play a role in supporting the zone through the offering of extension services which will enable the efficient use of the lands being occupied. Farmers from Cascade in St Ann have also benefited from the Japan Caribbean Climate Change Partnership Project, which enhanced their capabilities in climate change adaptation and mitigation. Under the project, the Cascade farmers received 1000-gallon tanks, a multipurpose shed that facilitated the harvesting of water in the tanks, and a drip irrigation system to irrigate their crops. Additionally, they were involved in an extensive training programme that included workshop sessions, farmer field schools and field tours to other successful farms in the parishes of St Elizabeth and Manchester that utilise climate-smart technologies. The sessions also exposed the farmers to information about climate change, climate-smart agriculture, water harvesting and irrigation technologies, and farming as a business. The project, which exists in seven other Caribbean countries, was financed by the government of Japan to the tune of $29 million and was implemented by the United Nations Development Programme in partnership with the Jamaica 4-H Clubs. The other countries include Bel ize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, and Suriname. keisha.hill@gleanerjm.com Agriculture gets much-needed boost This St Ann farmer proudly shows off some tomatoes in her greenhouse. Lebert Taylor (left), a St Ann farmer, sells pumpkins at a farmers’ market. FILE PHOTOS jamaica at JAMAICA AT 60: ST ANN

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JUNE 27, 2022 14 Paul H. Williams/Gleaner Writer WHEN THE Gleaner chanced upon some young men at a ‘cook shop’ in Lime Hall, St Ann, lunch was over the fire and they appeared to be overjoyed that The Gleaner was in the area. They were saying things that gave the impression that they wanted to chat. One was quick to ask about where he could get a banana boat on which to leave Jamaica, as he was living in the wrong country. But, when they saw the camera, the pen and the notebook, they became coy and trailed away to occupy themselveswithother things, including attending to the food they were cooking. However, the eldest among them, KerwinWhittingham, was ready to talk, and he did not mince words. The subject of Jamaica’s political Independence was the first to be broached, and he did not hesitate to say that he would prefer if Britain regained the day-to-day running of Jamaica’s affairs. To him, that would not be a backward step for “even though we are independent, we still have to look towards the Queen and other international bodies” to survive, and we could get the opportunity to travel without restrictions. While the other youths refused to speak on tape and have their pictures taken, at points they stopped and listened, nodding in agreement with Whittingham and echoing some of his words. They are convinced that Independence celebrations are not for the people. Rather, they are a money-making opportunity as the Government itself has no real interest in Independence and “people life a living”. And it is not only about Independence celebrations but nothing that the Government does has any meaning to them. “Culture and entertainment in this country is a joke thing to how dem promote it and represent it … . A just dem friends andmoney in dem pockets it means to dem … . And use the people dem and the country name to gain what they want,” he opined. “When dem come with heart and soul and the people dem see it, dem can get all the support demwant because everybody want to live, everybody want a good life.” It is a sort of daily nonchalance and frustration that they are going through as they said people cannot work with the system as it does not protect and provide for them. The authorities must put laws and structures in place so that the people can live independently and be progressive. “For a country to be independent, we must be independent together … . If the people understandwe are all together in this Independence, we are going tomake sure that everyone is independent.” So, the conversation switched from political Independence, whichmeans nothing to them, to personal independence.“Wehave toknowwhatwe want, we have to have a clear vision because nobody has any vision for us,” he said. “I was born and bred in LimeHall, andwhat is therewas done not by the government, but by the peoplewho are trying touplift themselves … . You see what the youth dema do?Dema sell some food, others farm, do construction, no outside help, no community meeting.” The disillusionment that is rife among them can be changed if they see that the authorities care about them and show some interest, they said. “If it were not for the Government, people would have been around here in woodland in a garbage, no proper water structure, noproper light structure, no Internet, no nothing, you understand. But the peopledemroundhere see that dem cannot live like animal, so demclean up demplace and do what dem can do fi earn a living. Left to the authorities, people would live like dog,” Whittingham stated. To deal with the stress, they said, they smoke, take their minds off things, show love and take care of one another in their own spirit of independence. “Memba say we live together roundyahso….Wehave to understand say the system is against us so we have to be together … . Sometimes the pressure gets hard, and certain tings gwaan, and it escalate, butpeople realised thatwar isnot theanswer, violence isnot theanswer,” Whittinghamstated emphatically. On the subject of a possible food shortage, and the popular axiom about ‘eat what your grow and grow what you eat’, they were particularly vocal, for, with so much idle lands and hands, they said the Government is doing nothing to mitigate the former and live up to the latter. They want: lands on which to farm; support structures put in place; Government to educate, train and mobilise the farmers; and to hold people in charge accountable. Another youth scoffed at the concept of Vision 2030, saying too much emphasis is on crime-fighting and not on skills training and education. There is a general neglect of the youths in the communities. Their struggles are real and, because opportunities are limited, they are tempted “to go steal and scam”. “This country can be the best country in the world, Vision 2030 as dem say, but only if dem a come clean and straight. Yuh see if corruption ina it, a pure judgement…. Dem affi care for and structure the people them the right way… and den it will happen for 2030… . That is why we have a government, to give people a sense of independence because … once you give them a sense of independence, you are giving them hope,”Whittingham philosophised. ‘Give us land and structures’ Kerwin Whittingham says Lime Hall, St Ann, would he be a better place should he be given the chance to run it. A youth in Lime Hall, St Ann selling food to eke out a living. PHOTOS BY PAUL H. WILLIAMS jamaica at JAMAICA AT 60: ST ANN