Jamaica at 60 Manchester

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2022 4 MORE LOVE INDEPENDENCE BABY WANTS IN THE COUNTRY Paul H. Williams/Gleaner Writer WHEN THE Gleaner team arrived in a yard in Williamsfield, Manchester, searching for Dalton A. Blake, a woman came from the back of a house with her phone. We told her who we were looking for. She said Blake was not around, that she was washing, and Blake was the best person to talk to us about the ramshackle Williamsfield train station. Yet, we didn’t let her go. She was self-conscious about her appearance, but we assured her it was okay. The first question was about what was happening in the community. The blasé response was that she didn’t go on the street much, and that things were going up and down. Obviously, there wasn’t much to write home about, but we wanted a story. She was not born in Williamsfield, but she has been associated with the place for 20 years. Nevertheless, since we are focusing on Jamaica 60, 1962 was mentioned. She paused, and smiled faintly before saying “that’s the year I was born”. Bingo!We had found an Independence baby just like that. Yes, Erica Medley was born seven months before August 1962. Since then, she has morphed into a grandmother. There have been crosses and tribulations along the way. She has seen growth and decline, good and bad, but what she really wants to see is a drop in the crime rate and a rise in the level of youth employment. Unemployment is a contributory factor to crime, she believes. “They don’t have anything to do, so they turn to crime,” she claimed. A revival of the Jamaica Railway Corporation’s passenger service would also be welcome, as Medley said she used to enjoy the rides from Kingston to Montego Bay. She actually met Blake, who was a stationmaster at the time, on a train, she recalled. A romance ensued, as she said he was “very nice”, and “still is nice”. That niceness then is what Medley wants people to emulate. She wants more love in the country, and for the violence to stop in this, our 60th year of independent nationhood. And how is she going to celebrate her ownmajor milestone? She said she has been getting promises, but she is cautious because sometimes promises go unfulfilled. The old train station, in its decrepitude, full-heartedly agreed. JAMAICA AT 60: MANCHESTER Erica Medley who was born in1962, the year Jamaica gained political Independence from Great Britain, found love travelling on the train from Kingston to St James. NATHANIEL STEWART/ PHOTOGRAPHER jamaica at Erica Medley was born seven months before August 1962. Since then, she has morphed into a grandmother. There have been crosses and tribulations along the way. She has seen growth and decline, good and bad, but what she really wants to see is a drop in the crime rate and a rise in the level of youth employment.

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2022 5 JAMAICA AT 60: MANCHESTER Paul H. Williams/Gleaner Writer THE PARISH of Manchester was created in 1814, twenty-four years before the emancipation of chattel slavery. Two years after Emancipation, a free village for residential purposes was created by Moravian missionaries on parts of a coffee plantation called Maidstone. Located in hilly terrain at about 954 feet above sea level, it is said that English settlers at Adams Valley thought the conical, stony hills in the area looked like the‘breasts of maidens’, hence the name of the place. In the 1820s, that plantation and one calledChathamwereoperated jointly and owned by Thomas Frith, who sold coffee, hired out enslaved people, sawyers, et al. In 1817, he owned over 100 enslavedpeople. Ownership of Maidstone was passed on to John Racker Webb in 1826. He possessed about 200 enslavedpeople. By 1829, Maidstonewas operatingby itself and partly acquiredbyHymen and Judah Cohen. It also produced sugar, rum, ginger, molasses, cotton, cocoa, pimento, mahogany, horses, and cattle. In 1840, two years after Emancipation, it was in joint operation with Bath plantation. In that same year, Judah sold 341 acres of Maidstone to the Moravian Church missionaries for their mission station. The Moravians in turn subdivided the acres into 98 plots ranging from one to 15 acres. The plots were sold “generously” to newly freed people to circumvent the high costs of rent on plantation lands, thus the establishment of the first free village in Manchester. The deposits were small, andby1850, theyhad completed payments. The land was hilly and rocky, so the plot layouts were uneven. They nonetheless evolved into a large village of independent peasants, who helped each other to clear lands, build wattle-anddaub houses, and to prepare fields to growcoffee, in addition to cash crops. TheMoravians themselvesestablished infrastructure. A schoolhouse, whichalsoservedas achapel,wasone of the first buildings in thenewvillage. TheMaidstoneGreatHousewasonce the residenceof theestatemanager. It is said that it was converted to a slave hospital, and later, to a manse for the Moravianminister. Nazareth was established on the former coffee plantation called Maidstone. It was a cornerstone of the post-Emancipation development of Manchester – and a significant one, too. The place where enslaved people used to toil in servitude was now owned by them. They were then a major part of the watershed of peasantry in Jamaica. The topography of rocks was not the best place for agriculture, but the early peasants were determined to eke out a living for themselves and to create opportunities for their descendants, many of whomare still living in the region andwho carry the same surnames as their ancestors. Remnantsof barbecues, andtheold slave hospital, the church, the cemetery, and the primary school also still exist. The school has a small museum that is the repository of artefacts that tell the stories of Maidstone’s history. TheNazarethMoravianChurch itself haswithstood the vagaries of time. It was established at Adams Valley in 1838 but was re-established inMaidstone,with the laying of foundation stones in 1888. It was reopened in 1890 at Maidstone and has been part of the lifeblood of Maidstone since. Over the years, efforts have been made to preserve it, and in 1987, it received a Heritage in ArchitectureAward fromthe Jamaica National Heritage Trust for best-kept historical church. However, after 60 years of Independence in Jamaica, the population of Maidstone has been on a continuous decline. Not many employment opportunities are in that rocky place. Nonetheless, its place in history as one of the cornerstones of Manchester’s development is fixed, never tobe surpassedby thenumber of peoplewho live there. MAIDSTONE: A MANCHESTER CORNERSTONE The Nazareth Moravian Church in Maidstone, Manchester, played a critical role in the development of the free village. FILE Located in hilly terrain at about 954 feet above sea level, it is said that English settlers at Adams Valley thought the conical, stony hills in the area looked like the ‘breasts ofmaidens’, hence the name of the place. jamaica at

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2022 6 JAMAICA AT 60: MANCHESTER Keisha Hill/Senior Gleaner Writer TWO YEARS after Jamaica gained political Independence from Great Britain, Jean Anderson decided that she wanted to serve the parish of Manchester. She did so by becoming a justice of the peace (JP) and is today the longest-serving JP in the parish. “I feel very humbled to have been a justice of the peace for 58 years. It is a very rewarding experience after so many years of giving service without expecting a reward or recognition,” Anderson said. She added: “I was appointed at the relatively young age of 33, and I have been in this position since 1964. I have always had a friendly personality, and people usually gravitate towards me. It has always been a pleasure helping out and serving in the community,” Anderson said. Among her other outstanding achievements was to have been elected as the first female president of the Lay Magistrates’ Association, serving in that capacity for three years. Lending her assistance to the development of the country, and by extension the parish of Manchester where she resides, Anderson says she always had the desire to actively contribute to development. In 2011, she was conferred with the Order of Distinction in the rank of Commander, for her outstanding contribution to community service. Anderson’s memory is striking! You could listen to her all day, reminiscing on the good old days in Jamaica, and the wonderful memories she had with her siblings and her family. As an 88-year-old woman, she has lived an illustrious life, one filled with many firsts, and an undeniable legacy that will be etched in our island’s history for many years to come. Anderson is the only remaining sibling of five, whose roots began here in Jamaica in the early 1900s. She is the third of the children, with her eldest brother being former prime minister of Jamaica and former leader of the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP), Edward Seaga. Her father was a businessman and the son of immigrants from Lebanon, while her mother was of mixed heritage. They operated a dry goods store on King Street and later Seaga’s Travel Service. She began her early years in Kingston, but married Ronald Anderson, a Scottish geologist, and relocated to the cool hills of Manchester. Moving to Mandeville was a new way of life for her, but she adapted quickly, and began in earnest to serve her community. “Mandeville at the time was a one-street town, with the courthouse in the centre, and the greens around it; the parish church which is St Marks, and there were a few grocery stores around us; the market, which was also in the centre, and is still there today. The post office was beside the market, but it has moved to another location in the town,” Anderson said. As the town began to grow with the impact of bauxite mining in the parish, Anderson went on to pioneer the leading travel service agency in mid-island Jamaica. Initially, travel was not a known industry and Anderson and one of her closest friends, through her father’s company, would helpmigrant workers to complete the necessary documentation they needed to travel on ships. “Britain opened the doors. Because of the war they did not have enough manpower, and they needed workers in their country. There was no air travel as that would have been be too expensive in those days. They were mostly chartering ships, and my father, they sold berths for the people to go to England,” Anderson said. Anderson indicated that initially it was a difficult process, as many of the people were not registered at birth and those who were registered had incorrect names. “I remember one time, there was this man who had a peculiar name, and try as we might, because he was not registered, we were unable to find the right spelling,” she said. However, things changed for the better when planes started making flights to and from Jamaica through Pan-American Airlines, and Anderson became an agent for her father. “People started travelling mostly to the United States, and this is where it became a booming industry. Eventually, I had to go on my own, and I came up with the name Global Travel Services. It became much larger in the mid-island – Mandeville, Christiana, Santa Cruz – with people wanting to travel,” she said. With demand from the bauxite industry andmore people desirous of travelling, the company grew exponentially and became the third-largest travel agency in Jamaica. Having stamped her mark in the world of business, Anderson became a leading philanthropist in the Manchester community. She was instrumental in the formation of the now Belair Preparatory and High schools, and she is one of six original members of the Mandeville Chamber of Commerce, now Manchester Chamber of Commerce. She served as its president, and during her active career served on numerous boards, including that of Manchester High School. Anderson, with her husband of 54 years, had two children, Ronna Lynn and Jacqueline (who is now deceased). Through Ronna, Anderson is the grandparent to two granddaughters and a grandson. Unfortunately, Jacqueline, her youngest daughter, developed type 1 diabetes at the age of 13 and died at 28. This led Anderson to divert her energy and focus in reviving the Diabetes Association of Jamaica, in memory of her daughter. “She suffered from many severe complications. I have never gotten over losing her. I travelled the world to find ways to extend her life. We didn’t know that support and lifestyle changes were what was required to help her with the disease,” Anderson said. keisha.hill@gleanerjm.com ANDERSON Jean Anderson (left) receives an award from Jenepher Baugh for the longestserving member of the Jamaica Association of Travel Agents in 2013. FILE PHOTOS JEAN ANDERSON Manchester’s longest-serving JP jamaica at

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2022 7 JAMAICA AT 60: MANCHESTER Keisha Hill/Senior Gleaner Writer AS A young engineer, Lyden ‘Trevor’Heaven started what has been a phenomenal journey in the parish of Manchester. In 1977, he was recruited by two of the island’s major bauxite companies, Alcan and Alumina Partners of Jamaica (ALPART). He chose Alcan, and since then has been an influential figure in the development of the town of the Mandeville and its environs. “Mandeville is really an attractive residence town. Many returning residents come here from North America and Europe. It is extremely salubrious in terms of its climate and the diversity of the town’s elevation. When I came to the town, Cecil Charlton was the mayor at the time and one of the things that attracted me to it was that more than any other town, it was one of the cleanest towns,” Heaven recalled. Heaven is a graduate of the University of Reading, a chartered electrical engineer by profession, with extensive experience in the bauxite/alumina industry. He has been in the petroleum industry as a franchise operator since 1988. The town, he said, has evolved over time and there have been major developments in terms of business, education and industry. “Bauxite has basically died, but guess what? We survived because of the infrastructure that is here and the kind of attractions that bring people to the town,” Heaven said. “Our education system is one of the best right now, with almost all major tertiary institutions having a branch here now. Our high schools are also quite impressive. I pride myself in heading a few of these school boards. I think we have done exceptionally well as a town and I pride myself in living here,” he added. During his early years in the town, Heaven, along with his job at Alcan, started out as a distributor for Island Dairies Limited. The opportunity then came for him to become a retailer for multinational company Texaco. “I have always contemplated my position in this life. I have always said I was not born to be an employee, and so business has always been a mainstay in my efforts in terms of building a career. I always have my eyes open for opportunities,” the businessman said. He is currently the owner and operator of Heaven’s FESCO ’s i n Mandeville. He is a twotime past president of the Jamaica Gasolene Retailers Association. “We have grown and evolved. Fourteen years ago, we joined with several local entities to start Future Energy Source Company. We are among the first retailers to have accepted fuel from a newmarketing company, to compete with other multinationals. I am proud of the Jamaican landscape and my pride and joy, Manchester,” he said. Heaven is also a justice of the peace, serving currently as vice-president of the Lay Magistrates Association of Jamaica and a Rotary Club past president and district chair. He currently serves as chairman of Cornerstone Trust and Merchant Bank (CTMB), chairman of the credit and audit committees for CTMB, and serves on several other corporate and school boards. keisha.hill@gleanerjm.com We survived the death of bauxite in Manchester – Heaven Lyden ‘Trevor’ Heaven, owner and operator,FutureEnergySourceCompany. NATHANIEL STEWART/PHOTOGRAPHER jamaica at

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2022 9 NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2022 8 JAMAICA AT 60: MANCHESTER JAMAICA AT 60: MANCHESTER Keisha Hill/Senior Gleaner Writer SOME 80 years ago, it was discovered that the parish of Manchester was the site of one of the largest deposits of bauxite in Jamaica. This discovery led to the growth and development of Manchester’s bauxite and alumina industries, which facilitated the speedy development of the parish and Mandeville, in particular. Overnight, Manchester and, by extension, Mandeville, became a roistering boom town that began to grow and flourish and has continued to do so ever since. As a market centre for farmers, the town enjoys a relatively stable economic base and offers the pleasures of rural life with the conveniences of a mini-city. Its growth was spurred by the establishment of an alumina mining company, Alcan Bauxite, in partnership with the Jamaican government in 1957. High wages, housing, and other attractive benefits lured educated Jamaicans and returning residents to the peaceful and serene town. This environment was also ideal for young professionals and upper-income households. It was the executives of the Canadian-based Alcan company that saw the need to establish an entity that would serve the needs of thebusinesses in theparish and provide a platform for social interaction and networking among them. This initiative, led by Gia Arnold, became the Mandeville Chamber of Commerce. This organisation has grown and morphed into the Manchester Chamber of Commerce. President of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce and operations manager at Blue Ember Concepts Limited, Simone SpenceJohnson, says the mandate of the organisation to assist and lobby for its members and business owners remains the same. “We are the voice of the business community in the parish. We represent our members on various stakeholder platforms, and we sit on most boards and address different issues relating to the business community in Manchester,” Spence-Johnson said. Businesses in the parish, she says, have been through different stages over the years and with bauxite no longer the mainstay of the parish, businesses have shifted to small and medium enterprises that are doing well. “Initially, there were not many small businesses that were a part of the chamber. But with the growth and development of the town, large enterprises and an ecosystemof entrepreneurs now make up the organisation,”Spence-Johnson said. The chamber, she says, strives to identify and serve the needs of all its members. The chamber, in its vision statement, has identified itself as an organisation that promotes and facilitates entrepreneurship through the development and growth of businesses, while improving the quality of life in the parish of Manchester. However, since theonset of the coronavirus pandemic, Spence-Johnsonsaysbusinesses intheparish havebeen throughmany changes, and thingshave quieteneddownabit.Thechamber, she says, isurging itsmembers tostayactiveandutilise its services. Meetings and consultations are held virtually, and members are still represented by the chamber. “We want to ensure that businesses in Manchester feel the impact and support of the chamber of commerce.We want business owners to know that they are a part of the chamber and they should feel supported and get the benefits of what we have to offer,” she said. With the continued development of businesses in the parish, the chamber president says there are areas of concern for members, including traffic congestion in major towns, the current location of the Mandeville market, and the slow pace of business transactions at some government offices, including Tax Administration Jamaica (TAJ). “There are proposed plans to alleviate the traffic congestion, especially in Mandeville. Over the holiday period, changes were made and this helped businesses significantly. There is also a proposed plan for the market. If we can get that off the ground, it would help to solve many of the issues that we are having,”Spence-Johnson said. The chamber president also suggests the diversionof some services fromtheTAJ to thepost office, so that thewaitingperiod for these transactions can be minimised. “Some of the smaller transactions could be done at the post office. I don’t know all the intricacies, but it wouldmake it easier for us as business owners and the public in general to do business. It wouldn’t have to take us the entire day to renew, for example, our driver’s licence,”she said. keisha.hill@gleanerjm.com Manchester businesses have shifted to small/medium enterprises Simone Spence-Johnson (left), director of operations at Blue Ember Concepts Limited and president of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, brainstorms ideas with Annette Salmon, founder of Made in Manchester. Simone Spence-Johnson (left), director of operations at Blue Ember Concepts Limited and president of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce; Lyden D. ‘Trevor’ Heaven, owner/operator of Heaven’s FESCO’s DODO in Mandeville; Stafford Haughton, chief operating officer and chief pharmacist at Haughton’s Pharmacy – Mandeville; and Annette Salmon, founder of Made in Manchester, in discussion during a meeting. PHOTOS BY NATHANIEL STEWART/PHOTOGRAPHER Paul H. Williams/Gleaner Writer ONE OF the things Jamaica is known for is its coffee, whether it is grown in the Blue Mountains of Portland, St Thomas and St Andrew, or in other parts of the island. Its cultivation has been going on since the early 18th century, when it was introduced to the island in 1728 by the then governor of Jamaica, Sir Nicolas Lawes. It is said he brought over eight coffee seedlings from Martinique, and planted them on his own property at Temple Hall in St Andrew. Another man from Vere, now Clarendon, planted some too on his property, and in less than 10 years the local coffee industry was flourishing, as refugees fromHaiti were entering the island in droves. It was agreed that they could stay in return for sharing their knowledge of growing coffee in the Caribbean. The parish of Manchester, with its mountainous topography, and cool and clement weather, has been an integral player in Jamaica’s coffee story. It has one of the earlier parish industries in coffee. Mile Gully was an important coffee region. It was themelting pot of coffee production, themain economic activity in the region, and was once the residence of planters and settlers, who had acquired properties there. Several plantations for coffee production were established in the region. They include Ballynure, Devon, Evergreen, Green Hill, GreenVale, Grove Place, Inglewood, Lancaster, Maidstone, May Day and Mayfield. Things have changed over the years, but coffee is still a major crop in the parish, and so we turn to John O. Minott to see what is going on in the coffee industry inManchester. Minott is the general manager at Jamaica Standard Products (JSP) Company Limited. Headquartered at Williamsfield in the said parish, JSP is the owner of Baronhall Estate, Baronhall Farms, Island Blue Jamaica Blue Mountain Coffee, and Blue Baron Estate. Its Jamaica High Mountain Coffee is one of the oldest and largest coffee-roasting factories in Jamaica, and one of the most renowned coffee companies in the entire industry. JSP is certified by the government-owned Coffee Industry Board of Jamaica, and is regarded as the leader in the coffee industry of Jamaica. It has been owned and operated by the Minott family for over 80 years. It was founded in 1942, and its current managing director/chairman is John O. Minott Jr who has been working in the industry for 30 years. He is the third generation of Minott involved in the running of the company. It is the only HighMountain coffee producer in Jamaica, and supports farmers from all over the country who depend on JSP to buy their coffee. It is a major employer of labour. And when the hard work is done, the coffee is attractively packaged into its popular brands. The company predates Jamaica’s Independence by 20 years, and it has seen a continuous decline in the number of people who are interested in working in this labour-intensive industry. The number of people involved in the cultivation aspect is constantly dwindling. At 60 years of Independence, Jamaica’s coffee industry is not dead, nor is it moribund. Yet, it needs some caffeine to perk it up since it is rife with challenges, ones that need addressing if our well-known brands are to be competitive on the world market. “If you don’t have any potential for growth in an industry you are in, then what is going to happen?”Minott asked. According to Minott, the glory days when Jamaican coffee stood alone on top of the pedestal are long gone. There is legitimate competition from all-around. “Everyone wants a piece of the pie too, everybody stepping up their game, everybody has a good coffee now,” he remarked. The coffee industry in Manchester, as in the rest of the country, is under threat from climate change, cheaper coffee on the international market, and lack of interest from the youths in employment in the industry, high operational costs, and diseases. These are worrying signs said Minott, but “the pressing thing in Manchester is for people to come into production, people to work in coffee production’’, if the coffee industry there is to survive another 60 years. John O. Minott, general manager, Jamaica Standard Products Company Limited, gives the thumbs up as he explains production at the coffee factory in Williamsfield, Manchester. PHOTOS BY NATHANIEL STEWART/PHOTOGRAPHER John O. Minott, general manager, Jamaica Standard Products Company Limited, explains the earlier production of coffee at his factory in Williamsfield, Manchester. John O. Minott, general manager, Jamaica Standard Products Company Ltd, along with Abigail Campbell, quality assurance officer, explains the production of coffee at the Williamsfield factory in Manchester. jamaica at WANTED! More people in the coffee industry for the next 60 years

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2022 10 JAMAICA AT 60: MANCHESTER Keisha Hill/Senior Gleaner Writer TWO CENTUR I ES ago, Manchester was formed in 1814, by an Act of the House of Assembly, making it one of the newest parishes of Jamaica. It was formed as a result of the amalgamation of the parishes of St Elizabeth, Clarendon and Vere. This was done in response to a petition from the inhabitants of Mile Gully, May Pen and Carpenters Mountain, who complained that they were too far away from an administrative centre. Located in west-central Jamaica, in the county of Middlesex, Manchester was named after the then Governor of Jamaica, General William Montague, Duke of Manchester, whose administration was the longest in the history of the island, a period of 19 years from 1808 to 1828. The parish covers about 320.5 square miles and is the sixth-largest of Jamaica’s 14 parishes, sharing a western border with St Elizabeth, a northern border with Trelawny, an eastern border with Clarendon, and a southern border with the Caribbean Sea. The population is estimated at 190,000 with over 72,000 residing in the capital of Mandeville. Some of the other major towns include Christiana, Devon, Mile Gully, Newport, Porus andWilliamsfield. Manchester has a varied climate, scenery, and vegetation due to three mountain ranges, the May Day Mountain, Carpenters Mountain, and the Don Figueroa Mountain. The highest point in Manchester is located at Huntley in the Carpenters Mountain at an elevation of 2,770 feet (840 metres) above sea level. Over 90 per cent of the surface is limestone, so there are over 100 caves, along with sinkholes and underground passages. Gourie Cave near Christiana is the longest known cave in Jamaica at 11,499 feet. The Oxford Cave near Auchtembeddie is the largest and was once a roosting site for a possibly extinct bat species. Smokey Hole Cave in Cross Keys is the deepest known cave at 639 feet. There are some rivers in the parish, notably the One Eye River, Alligator Pond and Gut River. Some of these rivers run mostly underground, like the Hector’s River. Manchester also has large deposits of bauxite which was discovered in 1942, and parts of the parish have been strip-mined as a result. AGRICULTURE Because the area is largely mountainous, there is no large-scale cultivation of crops like sugar cane, which requires large plots of land. Consequently, Manchester never had sugar estates. The slaves worked on coffee plantations and, after Emancipation, became independent coffee farmers. Banana, coffee, pimento (al lspice) , annatto and ginger are grown, and the parish is noted for its citrus (oranges and grapefruit) which are exported. In 1920, the ortanique was developed in Manchester by Charles Jackson; it is a cross between the orange and the tangerine and is also a popular export. Irish potatoes are grown in the Christiana area. BUSINESS Many of the first Jamaican organisations and businesses began in Manchester. The Manchester Horticultural Society was formed in 1865 and is one of the oldest in the world. The Manchester Gold Club began in 1868 and is the oldest sports club in the Caribbean. The Mandeville Hotel, one of the oldest in the Caribbean, opened in 1875. Also, the legendary Jamaican Pickapeppa hot sauce is manufactured in Shooter’s Hill, Manchester. The Jamaica Standard Products Company also started its operations in Williamsfield. In 1966, four years after Jamaica gained its Independence, the Pioneer Chocolate Company opened its doors for business, also at Williamsfield. In 1987, Diana McIntyre-Pike and Desmond Henry created the first non-governmental organisation for community tourism – the Central and South Tourism Organization (CESTO). Since then, a company called Countrystyle has emerged to market and develop sustainable tourism throughout the Caribbean. POPULAR PERSONS Outside of its scenery and tranquillity, Manchester is also known for its people. Standing tall among them is Jamaica’s National Hero Norman Washington Manley. Manley was a Rhodes Scholar, a World War II veteran, an advocate of adult universal suffrage, the founder and leader of the People’s National Party. President of the International Netball Federation, Molly Rhone, is also a daughter of Manchester. After her tenure as a player, she served as president of the Jamaica Netball Association and vice-president of the International Federation of Netball Associations (IFNA). In 2003, as president of the IFNA, Rhone became the first and only Jamaican female to head an international sporting body. In 1961, Mile Gully’s native son, the Right Reverend Bishop Alfred Charles Reid, was ordained a priest of the Episcopal Church. Bishop Reid’s faithful and exemplary service to God and man has propelled him to the position of the 13th Episcopal Bishop of Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. MUSIC The creative geniuses of Ernest Ranglin (born 1932) and Byron Lee (1935-2008) have contributed significantly to Manchester’s recognition. During the 1950s, bothmen placed their indelible marks on Jamaican music as Ranglin became a proficient jazz guitarist and Lee formed the musical group Byron Lee and the Dragonaires. Both were very instrumental in the creation of ska and made significant contributions to later genres such as rocksteady and reggae. Jamaican reggae musician and Rastafarian, Garnet Silk (1966-1994), known for his diverse, emotive, powerful and smooth voice, also hailed fromthe parish. Patrick Barrett, better known by his stage nameTony Rebel, Jepther McClymont, better known as Luciano, and second-generation roots reggae artistes Anthony Cruz, Aaron Silk are also sons of the parish. SPORTS In sport, the achievements of ArthurWint ranked second to none among the natives of Manchester. After serving in the Royal Air Force duringWWII, Wint, who was already an accomplished athlete, left the military and went on to medical school. Here the scholar and athlete balanced his studies with his training, resulting in gold and silver medals at the 1948 Olympic Games. He was the first Jamaican Olympic gold medallist. Wint later served as Jamaica’s high commissioner to Great Britain. In recent times we have seen the success of Deon Hemmings McCatty, former female 400 metres hurdler. Hemmings McCatty was the first-ever Jamaican woman to win an Olympic gold when she won the 400mhurdles at the 1996 Olympics, breaking the Olympic record which stood to 2004. Elaine Thompson Herah is fivetime Olympic champion who competes in the 100m and the 200m. She is the fastest woman alive. Sherone Simpson, a gold medallist in the 4x100m relay from the 2004 Olympics and silver medallist in 2005 World Championships, and the silver medallist in the individual event at the 2008 Summer Olympics, is also from the parish. Nesta Carter, who has been a successful part of the Jamaican 4x100 metres relay team, also hails from Manchester. HOUSING Over the two centuries since it was founded, Manchester has grown and prospered and is still the destination of choice for retirees returning from England. keisha.hill@gleanerjm.com SOURCE: National Library of Jamaica THOMPSON HERAH BYRON LEE MANLEY jamaica at MANCHESTER THE PARISH WITH A RICH HISTORY

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2022 11 ANSWERS ON PAGE 14 JAMAICA AT 60: MANCHESTER Paul H. Williams/Gleaner Writer THE PARISH now known as Manchester was not a popular region for the colonists in the early days. It was regarded as a hilly wilderness, a stark contrast to the coastal plains, which the settlers preferred. Yet, some of themwere pulled to the region by its cool agreeable climate. The high altitudes of its three great mountain ranges and the clean, fresh air thereon made the living healthier. Around the same time, sugar planters were having challenges and strong competition fromoverseas. Coffee farming was now seen as a viable business alternative. Settlements grew in size and numbers, but settlers felt they were isolated from the major town centres. They wanted a new parish and a town closer to them, and so they petitioned the House of Assembly for such on November 29, 1814. But how much do you yourself know about Manchester? Find out by answering the following questions? 1. Geographically, where in Jamaica is the parish of Manchester located? 2. In which county can you find the parish of Manchester? 3. When was the parish of Manchester established? 4. From which three parishes was land taken to create Manchester? 5. How many square miles constitute the parish of Manchester? 6. Name the three major mountain ranges in the parish of Manchester. 7. When was the first time that the Manchester Vestry met? 8. Who was the parish of Manchester named after? 9. When was the site of the chief town of Mandeville identified? 10. Who was Mandeville named after? 11. Which estate was the town of Mandeville created from? 12. Who laid out the town of Mandeville? 13. What was the first building to be built in the new town of Mandeville? 14. True or false? Mandeville is the only parish capital not located on the coast or by a major river. 15. Where was the first house in Mandeville located? 16. What is the name of the parish church in Mandeville? 17. Which parishes surround Manchester? 18. Where in Manchester is the largest sand dune in the Caribbean found? 19. Where in Manchester did the worst train crash in Jamaica occur? 20. Develop an adjective from the word, Manchester. MANCHESTER TRIVIA How well do you know your parish? jamaica AT

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2022 12 JAMAICA AT 60: MANCHESTER AS JAMAICA celebrates 60 years of Independence, our correspondent Tamara Bailey has looked to the future and askedManchesterians the following question: ‘What developments would you like to see in Manchester in the next 60 years?’ jamaica AT | VOX POP LOOKING TO THE NEXT 60 YEARS The Cecil Charlton Park in Mandeville, Manchester. NATHANIEL STEWART/PHOTOGRAPHER Omar Robinson, councillor candidate, Alligator Pond division “I would definitely like to see improvements in all our road networks, access to potable and irrigation water and sustainable programmes to benefit our farmers and fisherfolk. I would like to see the installation of a sustainable welfare programme for the elderly and vulnerable. I would love to see our parish return to being one of the safest place to live, work, raise families and do business. I would also love to see more of our young people making the statistics as certified and employable on the job market.” Rajae Danvers, communication strategist “I would love to see the redevelopment of the town centre with an innovative use of land space. I would also love for the concept/idea of Brooks Park to come to fruition and I would be more than happy for the parish to boast an innovative water catchment/harvesting engineering to combat the water challenge of the parish.” Randy Stewart, senior teacher, primary level “Manchester roads need improvement. I also want to see more entertainment spots for the various age groups. Efficient use of commercial spaces; establishment of some skyscraper buildings. If Kingston can do it, we can too. We need affordable housing developments, proper usage of farmlands. More solar usage over JPS.” Glendon Baker, justice of the peace, media practitioner, past chairman, Newport Development Area Committee “I would like all homes to have potable water supply, especially the southern parts of the parish. Mandeville to be less congested, by moving critical government agencies to towns like Alligator Pond, Newport, Asia and Mile Gully and the best paid and educated teachers to be at the early childhood level.” Shannette Smith, communications practitioner “Better roads for rural areas, more street lights and sidewalks for major and minor roadways, available and lightning speed Wi-Fi everywhere and reliable water supply.” Lanisia Rhoden, founder, Young Women and Men of Purpose “A youth/business hub that promotes innovation and entrepreneurship among youth. It should be equipped with required resources to enable innovative thinking and act as a space where doers can convene to discuss, collaborate and develop solutions for society’s biggest problems. I would also like to see a further development of the town centre to improve the flow of traffic for both motor vehicles and pedestrians. An upgrade of the offices of government to include more cutting-edge technology to improve efficiency and effectiveness.” AndreWellington, justice of the peace, president, Spaldings Citizens’ Association “I would like to see the removal of the mentally ill street persons from the townships. The development of affordable housing solutions for low- and middle-income workers and more effective policing with citizens’ involvement that would build safer communities.”

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2022 13 JAMAICA AT 60: MANCHESTER Keisha Hill/Senior Gleaner Writer IN JAMAICA today, with so many societal ills plaguing our country, including crime and violence that continues to rear its ugly head, there are urgent pleas from every sector of the society for a return to decency, and law and order. Businessman and custos of Manchester, Garfield Green, is undertaking a programme aimed at fostering positive values and attitudes and a sense of social responsibility among citizens in the parish. The initiative, dubbed ‘Manchester Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes’, will serve to restore those core values and principles that make communities thrive. “Our objective is to foster positive values and attitudes and to help create a sense of patriotism among people in the parish. We want our young people to become more civic-minded and to participate in civic duties. They will learn about their history and have a sense of civic pride, and self-respect. If this were the case, then the crime rate would not be so high,” Green said. Custos Green said the programme will target young people, schools and other areas of concern within the parish. According to Green, the programme will promote a number of projects, including the establishment of at least one uniformed group in each school, including the Cadet or Scout group. “If wehavepride inourselves, respect our own lives and respect the lives of others, then the nation will be better by far. Many of our people aregrowingupnot knowingwhere they are from or where they are going. They have nothing to live by, so they live too free,”Green said. Custos Green, who is also a past president of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, is well known in the parish and is respected by a wide cross section of persons. In accepting the position to the office of custos, Green had committed himself to serve the people of Manchester, promote the rule of law, public order, and civic pride in the parish, and supervise and swear in the execution of the legislated functions of justices of the peace. The custos is inviting collaboration on the initiative, noting that while it is being spearheaded by his office, partnerships are needed to ensure that the transformative goals can be achieved. “If we can instil national pride and respect for our country in our people, then they will want to preserve our nation and want the best outcome always. These values and attitude wouldmotivate them to believe in themselves and embrace the country’s growth and development,” Green said. Overall, Green is urging all Jamaicans to embrace positive values and attitudes in order to mend the moral fabric of the country and thereby contribute to economic development. With the social issues the country is now grappling with, Green said people must be given a vision about Jamaica, have them buy into that vision, and buy into a certain set of values, which cannot be achieved until persons adjust their moral standards. keisha.hill@gleanerjm.com Custos seeks to foster positive values and attitudes Garfield Green, custos of Manchester, points to his instrument of appointment. NATHANIEL STEWART/ PHOTOGRAPHER IN 1920, when Richard Henry Haughton moved his family to Mandeville, Manchester, to start his own drug store business, he had no idea that his legacy would span over 10 decades. The business was first started by Haughton, who was a chemist, and the family-run business has been passed down from generation to generation since. Haughton’s Pharmacy, now operated by 1920 Investments Limited, is one of the oldest pharmacies in Jamaica, celebrating over 100 years of continuous operation. Stafford Haughton, a third-generation proprietor in the family business, said in those days, Mandeville was abuzz with life and commercial activity. “As a little boy, when my father and mother took me into the town, I remember the town square. It was quite an alive town as I remember it as a young person. It was beautiful, and the park had palm trees all around it. There was the courthouse, and the parish church and the market, and my grandfather’s drug store was al so adjacent to the park ,” Haughton said. Haughton attended school in Mandeville in the 1950s and was one of the first students when Manchester High School opened its doors at its present location in 1953. The school, he said, was first located adjacent to St Marks Anglican Church, where the taxi park is now located. “I went there in second form and went right through to sixth form,” Haughton said. Haughton’s father was an apprentice pharmacist at the Kingston Public Hospital. Following the passing of his grandfather, his father returned to Mandeville and operated the family business. “As a young man, after school I went by the drug store, and stayed with my father. I also learnt many things about the business during this time,” he said. Years later, af ter Haughton’s father also passed in 1969, he too returned home to continue the family business. “I was in quality control at Federated Pharmaceuticals, and I was getting the opportunity to see the other side of pharmacy business. However, my sister, now deceased, and I came back to Mandeville. She was the business manager and I was the druggist (pharmacist),” he said. According to Haughton, Haughton’s Pharmacy is more than just a pharmacy; it’s a landmark. “It is a household pharmacy in three parishes. With close relationships in the medical community, we endeavour to supply their patients with the required medication at a moment’s notice,” he said. In early 2000, the business was sold to one of his daughters, and there are plans in place for continuation of the business for many years to come. keisha.hill@gleanerjm.com STAFFORD HAUGHTON’S EARLIEST MEMORIES OF MANCHESTER Stafford Haughton, chief operating officer and chief pharmacist, Haughton’s Pharmacy. NATHANIEL STEWART/ PHOTOGRAPHER jamaica at

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2022 14 JAMAICA AT 60: MANCHESTER Paul H. Williams/Gleaner Writer WHEN PEOPLE local and overseas tourists visit Manchester, they do not go for the big resorts and sparkling white-sand beaches. Though the central Jamaica parish has several hotels and guest houses, people visit it mainly for its rustic charm and idyllic places. BRANDED THE ‘Home of Community Tourism’ by the International Institute for Peace through Tourism (IIPT), and pioneered by the late past director of tourismDesmond Henry and Diana McIntyre-Pike at the then Astra Country Inn in 1978, Manchester has many homestay accommodations. It is dotted with many picturesque villages and places, including Resource, CanoeValley and Alligator Pond in the south. God’s Well, Gut River and Alligator Hole are some of the points of interest in Canoe Valley, at the western end of which is Alligator Pond, the home of glittering black sands, the longest sand dune in the Caribbean, and the popular Little Ochie seafood restaurant. Other places of note are the yam capital, Christiana, in north Manchester; the historic Porus district, featuring Father Pam Pam Riverside Ranch; Prince Matthew Rastafarian organic farmexperience; Mandeville Fruits Gallery, which hosts the Manchester Community Tourism Centre; High Mountain Coffee Factory, Prospect Plantation, Roxborough, Skull Point, ‘Duppy Church’, Sun Valley Plantation and White River Valley. “The parish offers community lifestyle experiences where visitors can enjoy the natural lifestyle, including businesses and farms. There is more interest in community tourism from the Jamaica Tourist Board, so Manchester has a good opportunity to be an integral destination for tourism, featuring the many interesting villages located there,” McIntyre-Pike told The Gleaner. And, according to McIntyre-Pike, Manchester is a heritage parish which had seven hotels before the north coast became a tourist stamping ground. Two of such, the Mandeville Hotel and Villa Bella Christiana, are still in existence. She said the parish has three entities, the Manchester Parish Library, the Manchester Golf and Tennis Club, and the Manchester Horticultural Society, that are the oldest in the Western Hemisphere. Regarded a tourism stalwart in the last parish to be created in Jamaica (1814), McIntyre-Pike is the founder/president of the Countrystyle Community Tourism Network Villages as Businesses, which is based in Mandeville but operates throughout the island and internationally with the IIPT, and co-founder of theManchester Peace Coalition with the IIPT Caribbean. She introduced Mandeville to the IIPT, and Mandeville became the first IIPT Peace Town in the Caribbean, with the first Peace Park at Brooks Park. McIntyre-Pike said tourism stakeholders in the parish are marketing Manchester, especially Mandeville, as the homestay capital of Jamaica. Centrally located Manchester “is easier to market to local and international visitors seeking a cultural heritage experience”. She herself is “planning to specialise in the health and wellness market and the training of communities, together with the Manchester Peace Coalition, in health and wellness, which will include environmental management, security and COVID-19 protocols”. There was also a community tourism entrepreneurship hospitality five-day, US Embassy-sponsored training course at the Academy for Community Tourism, in partnership with the UWI Open Campus, which was implemented online last year from the UWI Mandeville Open Campus for 40 people. Packages can be designed for community lifestyle experiences, bearing inmind the client’s budget and interests. Specialinterest markets for tree watching, birdwatching, gravestones, general nature, etc, will also be revived. Before and after 1962, Manchester has not been a parish overrun by overseas visitors, as in the case of the north coast resort towns of Negril, Montego Bay, Ocho Rios, and Port Antonio to a certain extent, and, according to McIntyre-Pike, “bearing in mind that there were seven hotels here before the north coast was developed”. That number has certainly been surpassed many times over. Yet, there is no known plan for the near or far future to transform the tourism landscape of this nature place into sprawling all-inclusive resorts, but there is much room to expand and improve the niche in which tourism in Manchester is cradled. Mandeville is the homestay capital of Jamaica – McIntyre-Pike Diana McIntyre-Pike File jamaica at PLACES OF HISTORICAL VALUE New Broughton United Church, an impressive early 19th-century cut-stone structure; St Mark’s Anglican, the parish church of Manchester (consecrated in 1820); Mandeville Courthouse (built in 1817); Maidstone district (founded 1840); Bloomfield Great House; Marlborough Great House; Marshall’s Pen Great House; Roxborough (bi r thplace of National Hero Norman Washington Manley); Kendal (site of 1957 train crash); Greenvale Railway and; Williamsfield Railway Station. MANCHESTER TRIVIA ANSWERS 1. West central 2. Middlesex 3. December 13, 1814 4. Vere, Clarendon and St Elizabeth 5. 339 6. Carpenter’s, May Day, and Don Figueroa mountains 7. July 1816 8. Governor of Jamaica William Montague, Duke of Manchester 9. August 27, 1816 10. Viscount of Mandeville, eldest son of the then governor of Jamaica 11. Caledonia 12. Charles Rowe 13. The Parsonage 14. True 15. To the left of the Mandeville Courthouse. 16. St Marks 17. Trelawny, St Elizabeth and Clarendon 18. Alligator Pond 19. Kendal 20. Mancunian

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2022 15 JAMAICA AT 60: MANCHESTER Paul H. Williams/Gleaner Writer IN THE days of slavery in Jamaica, the children of colonists were educated mainly in private spaces by governesses or visiting personal tutors. At a certain age, some were sent away to study in Europe and America to a certain extent. Yet in the 18th century, five schools were established for the children of the plantocracy: Wolmer’s Boys’ (1729), Manning’s (1738), St Jago High (1744), Rusea’s (1777), and Titchfield (1786). And, of course, the education of the enslaved was never a big factor until the Apprenticeship System was established in 1834. That year, the British government’s Negro Education Grant became available for church schools, which were the only formal educational institutions at the time. The grant initially disbursed £30,000, which continuously dwindled until it dried up in 1845. It was used mainly to help in the erection of school buildings. Yet it was financially onerous for the denominations to operate these schools, especially after full Emancipation in 1838 as more and more freed people attended. There was little or no assistance from the Government, and people likeWilliam Knibb did not keep quiet about it. It is said that he complained to aMr Dyer, his missions’ secretary in London, in 1835 that there were 2,500 apprentices in Trelawny, but there was not one public school. In 1836, Knibb and other missionaries did receive some financial aid, but because of the conditions attached to the assistance by the Government, the Missionary Society refused the aid and left it up to the missionaries to accept or reject. In 1837, the missionaries in the north of the island decided not to accept aid from the Government. The involvement of the Church in the education of the children of the colonists and the formerly enslaved did not take a break nonetheless. More and more schools were established, and more help from Government came in 1868. The aid was limited to the maintenance of buildings, the payment of teachers, and the setting-up of an inspectorate to determine which institutions shouldget aid fromtheGovernment. Eventually, the Government took responsibility for the payment of teachers. It built schools in areas where there were no church schools. In collaboration with the denominations, Government was operating some of these institutions as public schools, creating a Board of Education in 1845. Forty years from then, a commission was appointed to inquire into the state of elementary education. The commission’s final report was submitted in 1886. In 1892, the Elementary Education Bill was passed. The following year, free elementary education was instituted. And it is said that the first primary school in Manchester for the children of formerly enslaved people was established at Lititz, which is now regarded as part of St Elizabeth by the Ministry of Education. The Anglican Church, long regarded as the church for the local elite, was integral in the establishment of schools in Manchester. Church Teachers’ College, Bishop Gibson High School, and deCarteret College are the ones brought to mind. And Manchester High School is sited on property once owned by the Anglican Church. Though the Catholic Church is not featured heavily in the literature, its contribution to education in the parish of Manchester is quite visible. There is the Mount St Joseph Catholic High School, which is located at the same place as the former St Paul of the Cross Catholic School. Mount St Joseph Preparatory School is sited on the former Mount St Joseph Academy’s compound. Sacred Heart Academy is at Sacred Heart Church, and the Catholic College of Mandeville is a post-secondary institution. Other notable church-owned schools in Manchester are the first Presbyterian Theological College in Jamaica, near the New Broughton Church, and the United Church’s International University of the Caribbean Mandeville campus. At Maidstone, the first free village in Manchester, theMoraviansestablished a school nowcalledNazarethPrimary. The influence of the Seventh-day Adventist Church on education in Manchester is well documented. Since the early 1890s, it has established institutions at all levels of the school hierarchy. The best-known adventist institutions in Manchester are those associated with Northern Caribbean University (NCU), the oldest private tertiary institution in Jamaica, and was first known as West IndianTraining School, located in St Catherine. It began with eight students in 1907, offering classes up to the 12th grade. Following a temporary closure in 1913, it resumedoperations in1919 in Manchester. In 1936, it was renamed West Indian Training College. As its offerings developed to include theology, teacher education, secretarial science, business, and natural sciences, it became a junior college. It achieved senior college status in the late 1950s when it began to offer the bachelor’s degree in theology, andwas renamed West Indies College in 1959. Forty years later, the college was granted university status and was renamedNorthernCaribbeanUniversity. The group also includes NCU Early Childhood Institution, thedecades-old West Indies College Preparatory School, andVictor DixonHigh School (formerlyWest Indies College High). The 2018-2019directory of schools in Jamaica indicates that the public-school system in Manchester has three infant, 51 primary, two all-age, four primary and junior high, one technical, 13 high schools, and one teachers’college. On the independent schools’ side, there are 18 kindergarten/prep, one secondary with prep school, five high, 22 post-secondary, and two special-needs schools. MANCHESTER A CRADLE FOR EDUCATION Manchester High School. Church Teachers’ College, Manchester. FILE PHOTOS jamaica at And it is said that the first primary school in Manchester for the children of formerly enslaved people was established at Lititz, which is now regarded as part of St Elizabeth ... .

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