Hanover 300 Anniversary


NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 5, 2023 4 have shaped our collective identity. I pause to honour our pioneers, the visionaries, and all those who have selflessly contributed to the growth and prosperity of our parish over the centuries. We celebrate the legacy of Sir Alexander Bustamante, our national hero from Blenheim, and Hon Percival James Patterson, former prime minister from Dias. They have helped in paving the way for politics and governance in Jamaica. The works of these pioneers have paved a way for us to come together as a parish to embrace diversity, and to uphold the values that define us. Hanover stands tall on the pillars of unity, compassion, and unwavering faith that has been a hallmark for our people throughout the years. Hanoverians here and abroad, let us renew our commitment to preserving the traditions and practices of our parish, while embracing the winds of change. I call on us all to walk in the footsteps of those who came before us. Just as they adapted to the evolving needs of their time, may we endeavour to do so as well, ensuring that our parish remains a sanctuary and a beacon of hope for generations to come. Remember, also, that as we commemorate this 300-year milestone, we will not forget the responsibility we carry to leave a lasting legacy for the future. May we continue to foster a spirit of inclusivity, compassion, and service within our parish. Let us promise to stand up for justice, brotherhood and peace, to work diligently and creatively, to think generously and honestly, so that this our beautiful parish will increase in beauty, fellowship and prosperity, and play her part in advancing the welfare of the whole human race. Hanoverians join with me as we lift our hands in bonds of harmonious unity, symbolic of our testimonies of resilience and devotion, and declare that we are indeed blessed! May God continue to bless our parish abundantly . SHERIDAN SAMUELS Mayor of Lucea BLESSED CONTINUED FROM 3 HANOVER HOLDS the title of the smallest parish in Jamaica as it only has an area of 1,772 miles or 458.43 sq km. However, the terrain is mainly low lying with some mountainous regions. It also holds the distinction of being the second rainiest parish in the country. The towns include: Green Island, Sandy Bay, Ramble, Dias, Cascade and Lucea. The parish is bordered by St James in the easterly section and by Westmoreland in the south. The exact name was derived from George I, then monarch, who had familial ties with the house of Hanover in Germany. Initially, there was the proposal to name the parish St Sophia to commemorate the memory of King George I mother, but it was overruled by the Assembly. There is evidence that the original inhabitants – the Tainos – once resided in the parish as their remains have been found at Rhodes Hall Estate, Kew Estate, Haughton Hall Estate, Green Island Harbour and New Found River. The Spanish later occupied the island after the voyage of Christopher Columbus who claimed it as a part of Spanish colony. At the introduction of the Spanish, the Tainos were decimated as a result of Spanish brutality and diseases which they contracted from the Spanish. Piracy was also one of the hallmarks of the early history of Hanover. Pirates would operate from the nearby coast, specifically Negril Bay, which was once an embarkation point for pirates. In fact, Henry Morgan who later became Governor of Jamaica was said to be the owner of 4,000 acres of land in Riley, outside of Lucea. After the expulsion of the Spanish in 1655, the English laid claim to the island. Officially, Hanover was established on November 12, 1723 from a section of Westmoreland. The reason given was to facilitate the “ease of the inhabitants”. Prior to that, the residents had signed a petition complaining about the expense and inconvenience that they incurred, for example, having to travel up to 50 miles to pay taxes. Supported by slaves from Africa, Lucea had its fair share of plantations and was a key participant in producing sugar during the 17th and 18th century. In 1776 sugar and rum from the estates were exported from Lucea. By 1768, the parish had 71 sugar plantations, 13,571 slaves, 8,942 heads of cattle and an annual production of 7, 500 barrels of sugar for that year. A census conducted in 1824 revealed that there were: 502 whites, 1,438 free coloureds and 22,945 slaves. During colonial times, Lucea was a vibrant trade port as it was quite common for sales of slaves to take place at the port. RELIGION During the 18th century there were attempts to introduce more The history of Hanover Photograph showing the former home for the Inspector of Police for Hanover at Rusea’s High. OCCASION CONTINUED FROM 2 determination, and resilience have always shone through. It is this spirit that makes Hanover a true symbol of Jamaican strength and character. As a member of parliament, I am immensely proud to represent a place that embodies the very essence of Jamaica. Hanover’s cultural heritage, its traditions, and the warmth of its people are a source of inspiration to us all. Today, we not only celebrate the past, but also look forward to the future. The next 300 years for Hanover hold the promise of growth, development, and prosperity. It is our duty, as representatives and citizens, to ensure that Hanover continues to prosper and maintain its unique character. May its legacy continue to inspire generations for the next 300 years. TAMIKA DAVIS Member of Parliament PLEASE SEE HISTORY, 5 H AHNAONVOEVRE3R0 03T0 H0 TAHNANNI VNEI VRESRASRAYRFYEFAET UATRUER E | S U N DAY, N OV E M B E R 12 , 2 0 2 3

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 5, 2023 5 formal European religious teachings to the enslaved Africans. The Presbyterians sent two missionaries to the island on the request of planters who wanted to provide their slaves with religious instructions in 1827. One missionary, the Reverend James Watson, went to Lucea and eventually built two churches, one in 1830 and the other in 1832 in Green Island. The other went to reside nine miles outside of Lucea. POST-EMANCIPATION Typical of the post-emancipation period, the economy of Hanover became diversified and less dependent on sugar. The new peasantry engaged in the production of crops such as yam, cocoa, plantain and cassava. A particular variety of yam known as the Lucea yam later became affiliated with Hanover. Hanover became very prolific in agricultural production at that time. To enhance the labour force after the emancipation of slaves, several immigration schemes were developed from within Jamaica. These schemes recruited people voluntarily from India, China and other parts of Europe. The East Indian Scheme which took place between 1845 and 1917 saw some of the immigrants coming to Hanover. CONTEMPORARY HANOVER Nineteenth century Hanover saw items that were exported from the harbour up to the 1960s. In the 1970s, there was the exploration of crafts. In the 1980s there was a sojourn into agro- processing with turmeric processing. Additionally, in 1962 a cocoa fermentary was established. A deepwater pier was constructed but exportation from that particular port ceased in 1983 when the port was closed. Not only did they supply neighbouring parishes but also Panama which had many workers from Jamaica and so it was common for ships laden with provisions to sail from the Lucea Harbour. In the 1930s, the parish was famous for its cattle production as there were numerous grazing pens in areas such as, Settlewood, Burnt Ground, Knockalva, Ramble and Haddo. There were also some banana plantations in places such as: Kenilworth, Paradise Point and Westfield. Fishing is another economic activity in which some of the citizens participate. Hanover in 1989 engaged in manufacturing; Jockey International, a clothes manufacturing company, operated out of the parish where they produced over {20,000} dozen units per week. Initially, they employed approximately 450 persons and had made plans to expand their facilities. Tourism is another mainstay of the parish and provides employment for many. Some popular hotels are, Round Hill, Tryall and the new Grand Palladium. NOTABLE THINGS ABOUT HANOVER • The remains of a sugar factory and distillery can be found in Kenilworth. • The historic clock which was installed in 1817 was initially intended for St Lucia. However, when it ended up in Jamaica, the locals claimed it and funded outstanding amounts through a subscription service. The clock, which is adorned by a German helmet, sits atop the old Lucea courthouse. • Tryall Golf Club was previously a sugar estate and currently houses a 200-year-old water wheel – from the time of slavery. • In Lucea, Fort Charlotte which was built to defend the harbour from French raiders is the namesake of the George III’s Queen. • In 2007, Chigwell, a small farming community in the east of the parish, was flooded for months from rains that were associated with Tropical Storm Nicole. • Hanover shares the Negril strip with Westmoreland. • Fat Hog Quarter – is an ode to the fact that pigs were reared in this area in the 1700s. • Cascade has a number of fern species. • In 1985 the parish was affected by flooding which left a number of residents homeless. • There are claims that the Lucea Parish Church has a tunnel from the church to Fort Charlotte. The actual date of the establishment of the Parish Church is inconclusive but records of the earliest recorded baptism was 1725, 1727 and 1749, respectively, were the dates of the earliest recorded marriage and death, respectively. • The Lucea Police Barracks was once the Hanover District Prison from the 18th century. It is now home to the Hanover Museum. HISTORY CONTINUED FROM 4 HANOVER 300TH ANNIVERSARY FEATURE Fort Charlotte, located in Lucea, Hanover, was built in the mid 18th century by the British. PHOTO BY ALBERT FERGUSON HANOVER 300TH ANNIVERSARY FEATURE | SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 12, 2023

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 5, 2023 6 Caitlon Clayton/Features Writer NESTLED ON the picturesque northwestern coast of Jamaica lies the parish of Hanover, a region steeped in history and natural beauty. Over the years, Hanover has undergone significant development, transforming from a colonial outpost to a vibrant community that blends tradition with progress. Like the rest of Jamaica, Hanover’s history dates back to the 17th century, when it was inhabited by the indigenous people. However, the arrival of European settlers, primarily the Spanish and later the British, marked a shift in the region’s dynamics. Today, Hanover is home to a diverse population that reflects the island’s rich cultural tapestry. The population has steadily grown, driven by a mix of natural increase and migration. The vibrant communities within Hanover are characterised by a strong sense of identity, with residents actively participating in local traditions and events. INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Infrastructure in Hanover has seen notable improvements, contributing to the overall development of the parish. The road network has been expanded and upgraded, enhancing connectivity within the parish and beyond. This has not only facilitated easier transportation for residents, but has also boosted economic activities and tourism. While agriculture remains a substantial contributor to the local economy, tourism has grown in importance. Visitors have been drawn to the clean beaches and lush landscapes, resulting in the establishment of resorts and ecofriendly tourist projects. In a destination assurance meeting held in Boardwalk Village in Negril, Westmoreland, on March 23, Minister of Tourism Edmund Bartlett announced that there are big changes coming for the western parish of Hanover, as it is on track to claim its place among the bustling tourism areas on the island. The educational sector has also witnessed advancements with the establishment of modern schools and other educational facilities. Access to quality education has improved, fostering a skilled workforce that contributes to the economic growth of the region. In 2017, Hanover received its first business process outsourcing operation, Collective Solution, which started with 200 employees and has grown significantly since then. Despite industrialisation, however, Hanover’s cultural history has been successfully preserved. Local festivals, music, and traditions continue to be important components of communal life. Residents and the municipal government have both welcomed efforts to develop and sustain cultural identity. Hanover, like any developing region, confronts issues that must be carefully considered. Sustainable development techniques, environmental protection, and social integration are all issues that must be addressed on an ongoing basis. Looking ahead, the future of Hanover appears promising. With a committed community, supportive governance, and a strategic approach to development, the parish is poised to continue its journey towards prosperity while maintaining the essence of its rich history. Hanover: A tapestry of development HANOVER 300TH ANNIVERSARY FEATURE The Negril sign. PHOTO BY GEOFFREY BERRY HANOVER 300TH ANNIVERSARY FEATURE | SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 12, 2023

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 5, 2023 7 IN 1983, the deep-water pier that facilitated the exportation of goods from the parish was closed. The parish was also home to the Peter Powell Kites Factory (before that, the Lannon Baseball Factory), the Karla Garment Factory, and the Lucea Cocoa Fermentary. In 1988, they all suffered structural damage during Hurricane Gilbert and were never reopened. In 1989, however, the parish engaged in clothes manufacturing through the Jockey International Manufacturing Company, which had two locations within the parish, one in Sandy Bay and the other in Lucea, along Watson Taylor Drive. The company eventually left Jamaica in 2008, which created a surge in the number of unemployed individuals within the parish. This effectively suffocated the growth of the town and since then, no major development has taken place in the town outside of the creation of the Grand Palladium Jamaica Resort & Spa in the early 2000s. Oshane Robinson is currently pursuing his Master of Arts (MA) in heritage studies within the Department of History and Archaeology at The University of the West Indies, Mona. He is thse holder of a Bachelor of Arts in history and archaeology and a minor in philosophy from the same institution. The information presented above is part of his MA in heritage studies thesis titled ‘Heritage and Economics: Safeguarding the Heritage of Hanover for Sustainable Development through Heritage Tourism’, and also part of a wider research into the unique and diverse historical legacy of Hanover that will be published on November 12, 2024. The development in Hanover – Oshane Robinson HANOVER 300TH ANNIVERSARY FEATURE The Hanover Parish Church, the oldest in the parish, situated in the town of Lucea. The church, which is undergoing renovation work, is celebrating its 280th anniversary. PHOTO BY TASHIEKA MAIR HANOVER 300TH ANNIVERSARY FEATURE | SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 12, 2023

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 5, 2023 8 AS HANOVER celebrates its 300th anniversary, the National Housing Trust (NHT) and private investors have made timely interventions in the provision of housing solutions for its residents. The NHT, through partnership, has committed to providing over 1,000 housing solutions across the parish. Already delivered are some 63 units at the Industry Manor, formerly Industry Cove, consisting of 40 twobedroom town houses along with 23 two-bedroom detached units that were developed and sold since 2021. The trust currently has two ongoing projects in the parish, consisting of 1,235 housing solutions. In the Winchester development, some 1,100 units have been developed, and of that figure, 678 have since been completed. On the private side of the investment in housing, Cascade Group’s Infinite Concrete Limited has developed some 400 units in the Oceanpoint Housing Scheme near the Hanover parish capital of Lucea. Beside those, the parish has also seen investment in hotels, whose owners, as part of their development, are constructing the Princess Hotels, consisting of 2,000 rooms and four hotels on lands in the Green Island area of the parish and providing 600 free housing units for its employees. Christeen Hooper-Johnson, the newly minted head of the Hanover Parish Development Committee, has said there is still great demand for more affordable housing solutions in the parish. She said the NHT and other private developers have built a few houses, but the demand for Hanoverian and those who have chosen to work and live in the parish has far exceeded what has already been built. “It is not enough; there are still so many people who want to have a house of their own,” HooperJohnson told The Gleaner as she looked back at the state of affairs and Hanover at 300. “The development in Point, I believe, all of those are already gone. Those in Winchester, those are all gone,” she said of the housing developments in the parish. – Albert Ferguson Housing development in Hanover GLEANER PHOTOGRAPH New houses dot the hillside beyond the town of Lucea. This is a modern housing scheme which went up a few years ago to take care of Lucea’s growing housing needs. HAHNAONVOEVRER3030T0HTHANANINVIEVRESRASRAYRYFEFAETAUTRUERE| SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 12, 2023

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 5, 2023 9 HANOVER IS the only parish in Jamaica where members of the Ettu tribe can still be found. In Jamaica, Ettu both describes the dance as well as the communities of Pell River, Cauldwell and Kendall in Hanover. The Ettu people of Hanover claim Nigerian ancestry because they are descendants of Africans that migrated to Jamaica as indentured labourers. They identify their strongest heritage practices as music, dance, language, and food, in that order, and they are only used on special occasions such as death, wedding of persons within the group, when their ancestors need to be appeased, or whenever a member has a serious illness. The functions are regarded as ‘dinner plays’. Only two drums are used for all ceremonies. The drums are called the Accata, which is a tin drum, primarily a kerosene oil tin pan, and the Irrie, which is a double-headed wooden drum covered with the skin of a female goat, because the male goat skin produced a coarser sound. The drums are also at the centre of every Ettu ceremony and they announce the beginning and the end of each song. The dance is controlled by the drums, and the dancers perform facing the drums. For an Ettu dance to end, there is a signal from the dancer to the drummers. It seems simple and straightforward, yet requires specific coordination between feet and right arm. When dancing to the music, the dancers perform solo acts, except when the dancer is being ‘shawled’. This is done as a mark of appreciation and encouragement by the members of the group, who steps forward with a long scarf and throws it around the dancer’s neck. The shawler then presses the dancer’s torso backwards from the waist and stretches his or her arms in turn, by raising each one diagonally from the shoulder. Throughout the dance, feet are flat and in contact with the earth. Men dance with more energy and agility than women, who use subtle or angular hip movements, body erect or slightly tilted forward, with knees bent. This shows that what they are doing is genuine and they are more focused on their cultural practices, rather than pleasing the individuals around them watching. Because of the importance of contact with the earth, stage performances of Ettu are not taken seriously by the group. Among the Ettu group, appeasing the ancestors is very important. They depend on the “ancestors to advise them in matters such as healing and betrothals”. Ancestral help is also required to ensure rest for the spirits of the departed. Because of this, from time to time the Ettu people host dinner plays to entertain and appease their ancestors. The main foods are tum-tum, or fufu, to be eaten in the traditional manner; soup or stew of okra, spices and annatto seeds; and offal. Some food is earmarked for the spirits, and therefore cooked without salt. When a member of the group passed away, a ‘forty night’ was held on the 39th night after the death of the individual. The rituals for both ceremonies were said to be the same, except for the food served. – Oshane Robinson Hanover’s Ettu population Among the Ettu group, appeasing the ancestors is very important. They depend on the “ancestors to advise them in matters such as healing ... .” HANOVER 300TH ANNIVERSARY FEATURE HANOVER 300TH ANNIVERSARY FEATURE | SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 12, 2023