Independence Special: Jamaica @ 60 & Beyond


NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 2 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 jamaica at MESSAGE AS JAMAICAcommemorates its Jubilee as an independent nation it is, as usual, a time of celebrationandhonouringof theheroes of our past; heroeswhohavemadeus leaders in regional and international arenas including politics, sports, and culture. As theCEOof theRJRGLEANER Communications Group, it has been my privilege to oversee the management of twomediaentities cemented in Jamaica’s history – Radio Jamaica Limited and The Gleaner Company (Media) Limited, servingJamaica from as far back as 1834. Day-to-daywe are credible recorders of Jamaica’s history, adjusting to the changes in technology, culture, and other national/international influences to keep our content and delivery relevant and convenient for our audiences. Our primary objective every day is to continue to defend our people’s democratic rights and freedoms to access information relevant to themand to earn the public’s trust indelivering this information in convenient formats. It is as much a crucial time for reflection as it is for celebration. As responsible journalists, we remain on the front line of the pain, joys, achievements, and aspirations of Jamaicans at home and in the diaspora; and we share those experiences as Jamaicans ourselves. As we all question ourselves about how to fix the issues impacting crime, healthcare, education, business, and other aspects of our current circumstances as a nation, I suggest that we begin with ourselves; look at howwe, as individuals, in our small ways, are contributing to the negative experiences in our current circumstances. Then we must look at how we can contribute to the solutions. This is one decisive way that we can start on the journey to a brighter future. Earlier this year, as usual we honoured dozens of our outstanding Jamaicans in sports through the RJRGLEANER Sports Foundation Sportsman and Sportswoman of the Year awards. More recently the group, through the RJRGLEANER Honour Awards, was also privileged to honour 13 recipients who were making a positive contribution to the Jamaican experience. While you enjoy the pleasant memories and reflections contained in this special Gleaner supplement, I implore you tomake your own positive contributions in your small space. The most significant changes begin with just oneperson, and together they addup tobeing significant collective change. We celebrate our heroes, we celebrate our culture, and we celebrate you and the positive impact that you willmakeonour Jamaicanexperience. GARY ALLEN, CD, JP Chief Executive Officer The RJRGLEANER Communications Group WE CELEBRATE YOU, JAMAICA Karlene Waddell, who was crowned Miss Jamaica 1968 at the National Arena before a big cheering enthusiastic crowd. She was Miss Clarendon and wore the sash of Miss JPS. She is 19, and her vital statistics are 35-24-35 weighs 112lb. THE GLEANER ARCHIVES Karlene Waddell is crowned the first black Miss Jamaica 1968 ‘SHE’S ROYAL’ Alligator lay egg, but him no fowl. TRANSLATION: The alligator lays eggs, but he is not a fowl. (Beckwith) EXPLANATION: Never view a subject from one point only. OLE TIME PEOPLE USED TO SAY ...

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 3 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 jamaica at ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE Published Friday, February 9, 1962 AFTER A hundred references of Jamaica’s demands to the United Kingdom Cabinet this morning, the United Kingdom agreed to Jamaica having its Independence Day on the first Monday in August – August 6 this year. At yesterday’s session, Premier Norman Manley and Opposition Leader Sir Alexander Bustamante both made it clear that Jamaica would not be fobbed off by any delays to suit any other colony. The British Colonial Secretary, Mr Maudling, this morning said that he had been impressed by the views expressed unanimously by the joint Jamaican delegation and would be prepared so to recommend to the Prime Minister Mr HaroldMacmillan and the Cabinet. Mr Manley enquired how long that reference might take. Mr Maudling said a reply would be had that very morning. And so, by 11 o’clock this morning, a telephone message had been received at the conference at Lancaster House, stating that the United Kingdom Cabinet had agreed to the Jamaican stipulation as to the date for Jamaican Independence. It was then decided to embargo the news of the date – already predicted in The Gleaner – until midnight tonight. The following communiqué was issued: “Jamaican Independence Conference Date of Independence agreed. The Secretary of State for the Colonies (Mr Maulding) announced at this morning’s (Thursday, February 8) plenary session of the Jamaica Independence Conference now being held at Lancaster House, London, that the British Government were quite agreeable to the suggestion put forward by the Jamaica delegation for the date of Independence. This date will be the first Monday in August of this year, August 6, 1962. REPORT Britain has agreed that Jamaica – linked with Britain for three hundred years – will emerge as an independent nation on August 6, from the wreckage of an ill-fatedWest Indies Federation. This decision was announced in a communiqué issued after yesterday’s of the Jamaican Constitutional Conference which opened at Lancaster House February 1, and charted a new freedom constitution for Jamaica. The conference will end today with formal closing speeches and the issue of the report on conclusions of the conference. This report will include details of the Constitution, which Jamaican delegates said would have strongly entrenched clauses to safeguard against any dictatorship seizing power in the island. A communiqué released at midnight said “The Secretary of State AUGUST 6 (THIS YEAR) INDEPENDENCE DAY National holiday first Monday that month Norman Manley Sir Alexander Bustamante THE GLEANER ARCHIVES Jamaica Stock Exchange opens Rock ‘tone a ribba bottom no feel sun hot TRANSLATION: A stone at the bottom of the river never feels the heat of the sun. (Beckwith) EXPLANATION: Those in easy circumstances do not realise the hardship of others. (Anderson, Cundall) OLE TIME PEOPLE USED TO SAY ... STOCK EXCHANGE STARTS: Minister of Finance and Planning the Hon Edward Seaga at the board of the Jamaica Stock Exchange on the afternoon of January 31, 1969, after he had declared it open and taken part in the first transition. Looking on (from right) are three stockbroker-members of the exchange – Messrs Tony Lloyd, Haglas Golding and Edward Gayle and (at left) Sir Neville Ashenheim, Mr Hart Richards, Mr Earle Maynler and Mr Stanley Motta. THE GLEANER ARCHIVES 1969 ‘LET’S TRADE’ PLEASE SEE AUGUST 6, 4

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 4 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 announced at this morning’s plenary session of the Jamaican Independence Conference now being held at Lancaster House, that the British Government was “agreeable to the suggestion put forward by the Jamaican delegation for the date of Independence. “This date will be the first Monday in August of this year – August 6, 1962”. The present public holiday held on August 1 to commemorate the abolition of slavery in Jamaica would be dropped, he added. Sir Alexander, celebrating at his hotel tonight, told me: “There was quite a fight between the Colonial Secretary andmyself yesterday, and I expected to have to carry it on this morning. “Fortunately, this was not necessary. We are going back, having sorted out everything that was not already sorted out in Jamaica. I am very pleased about it all. “The Constitution now has been tidied up, and some things I had been anxious to get written into it have now been put in. It is a triumph for me.” Tomorrow, Premier Manley and Sir Alexander will lunch with Prime Minister Mr Harold Mcmillan immediately after the official signing of the Constitution. They plan to leave on Saturday for Jamaica. BRITAIN ANNOUNCES JAMAICA’S INDEPENDENCE London, Feb 9 (AP): THE BRITISH Government has announced that Jamaica will become independent August 6. Agreement on the date was communicated to the Jamaican delegation attending the constitutional talks here by Colonial Secretary Reginald Maudling. The talks began in London last week. They will end today when the conferencemeets in open session to hear the final communiqué. On Tuesday, Jamaican Premier Norman Manley, supported by Opposition Leader Sir Alexander Bustamante, told the conference that Jamaica wants to join the British Commonwealth when it becomes independent. MUST BE REPEATED There is likely to be no opposition to Jamaica’s application which, however, will have to be repeated formally after the conference. It is up to the Commonwealth Prime Ministers to make a decision. Such a decision can be made either by correspondence among the Prime Ministers or during a Commonwealth conference. The British-Jamaican talks have gone relatively smoothly. The basic problems were of an economic rather than political nature. Today’s communiqué will probably blueprint not only Jamaica’s Constitution and how the island is to govern itself but, probably also some directory plan for the country’s finances. This may necessitate another series of economic and financial talks between Britain and Jamaica to enable that country to plan ahead. The new island state, the largest of the 12 British protected territories sprawling across the Caribbean, has a population of 1,667,867 (1960 census) and covers a total area of 4,411 square miles. The capital is Kingston It produces bauxite, alumina, unrefined sugar, bananas, raw cocoa, citrus and citrus products, rum, molasses and coffee. Jamaica is the first of theWest Indies territories to achieve complete independence. TheWest Indies islands, as a whole, were granted independence as a federation last October and a date had been set for the end of May. Subsequently, however, a popular referendum in Jamaica last autumn urged the government to ask for secession. This virtually broke up plans for a greaterWest Indies Federation. Last Tuesday, the greater federation idea was finally doomed. Britain announced it has decided to break up the federation since other territories – Trinidad and Barbados – besides Jamaica had manifested their desire to go it alone. MANLEY: SOON WE WILL BE MARCHING THROUGH Here is Premier Norman Manley’s message to Jamaica on the eve of the signing of the Independence Agreement: “This has been a great and inspiring conference, and when we sign the agreement tomorrow, I feel that we will have unlocked the gate about which I spoke, and soon the door will be wide open and we will be marching through. “I knew from yesterday that we would get the date that we wanted. We will abolish the first of August as a specific holiday and in effect, it will be amalgamated with independence, which will be the first Monday in August every year. “So we mark and distinguish the difference, but preserve a historical connection, which I for one feel is supremely right for us to do. “It is exactly 22 years since I demanded with my party, independence for Jamaica. It has taken a long time; but we have lost nothing, except that it has taken a long time. We have gained an enormous self-confidence and maturity. The whole of this conference – indeed, everything we have done for the last six months – has been an example and a demonstration of that growth and maturity. “As soon as I get to Jamaica I will explain the changes we have made in the Constitution. But I am very glad to say, now that we have completely cleared up the problem of citizenship, as I promised to do, everyone will be satisfied. “We have arrived at a very sensible compromise of the difference about electoral procedure, and at the same time, we have enshrined in the Constitution the rights of the voter under adult suffrage. “Tomorrow will be a great day whenwe sign the report, whichmarks the end of the period of negotiation and the beginning of the preparations for independence, which will now go forward at top speed.” jamaica at ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE AUGUST 6 CONTINUED FROM 3 Sunshine Showdown Boxing Match, George Foreman vs Joe Frazier Sleep hab no massa TRANSLATION: Sleep has no master. (Beckwith) EXPLANATION: Sooner or later you must sleep. (Anderson, Cundall) OLE TIME PEOPLE USED TO SAY ... 1973 ‘KNOCKDOWN’ The referee stops the world heavyweight fight with his outstretched arms as challenger George Foreman walks across the ring from defeated Joe Frazier after the last knockdown at Kingston’s National Stadium last night. THE GLEANER ARCHIVES


NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 6 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 jamaica at ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE Published Friday, June 22, 1962 THE SEARCHFORNational Flagof Jamaicahas ended.Wednesday night, at the close of a dramatic and sometimes emotional two-hour debate, members of the House of Representatives stood and shouted “Aye”inadecision thatmade theBlack, GreenandGoldbanner Jamaica’sown. This then is the flag that will be unfurled at the National Stadium at midnight on August 5 to herald the birth of a new nation on August 6. This is the banner that will billow in the breezewhenHer Royal Highness the Princess Margaret performs the ceremony thatwill highlight Jamaica’s Independence Cerebrations. The sample design, of crossed diagonals in Gold, and triangles in Black and Green, is unique, the Hon Donald Sangster, minister of finance, told the House onWednesday. There is no other national flag like it anywhere in the world. It was the resemblance of the original design to the flag of Tanganyika that caused the House to have second thoughts on the matter. The first design, details of which were datelined in Ministry Paper tabled in the House on June 6, carried the same colours, but in horizontal bars. Tanganyika has the same colours and an almost similar arrangement. It was the effort of a bipartisan committee of the House and, as the Ministry Paper stated, the decision was reached on the basis of substantial compromise. TOO CLOSE But the resemblancewas a little too close toTanganyika’s flag, and so the men behind the design were asked to think again and they have come up with something that will stand out as it flutters, as it eventually wall, among the more than 100 banners flying fromtheir flagpoles outside the headquarters of the United Nations. It will bring, too, a lump to the throats of patriotic Jamaicans as they see it flying fromtheir flagpoles at the dawn of Independence on August 6; schoolchildren, to whom it will be distributed in thousands, will wave it and cheer and love it as the symbol of their country’s nationhood. The colours have their symbols, as the original Ministry Paper emphasised. Black: Hardships overcome and to be faced. Gold: Natural wealth and beauty of sunlight. Green: Hope and agriculture resources. The symbolism can also be rendered hardships there are but the land is green and the sun shineth. As the Hon Edward Seaga, minister of development and welfare, said in the debate, “I consider the design unusual, the pattern beautiful, and the symbolismperfect. On the sixth day of August I shall stand and salute the flag.” The House agreed that all Jamaica will do so with him. This is Jamaica’s flag Committee Produces Unique Design for National Emblem; No other country’s ensign like it; Will Be Unfurled At Independence If you can’ get turkey you must sati’fy wid John Crow. TRANSLATION: If you can’t get turkey, you must satisfy with John Crow. (Beckwith) EXPLANATION: If you cannot getwhat youwantmust be satisfiedwith thatwhich comes nearest to it inappearance. (Anderson, Cundall) OLE TIME PEOPLE USED TO SAY ...


NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 8 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 jamaica at ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE PublishedWednesday, August 8, 1962 THE FIRST PARLIAMENT of the independent Jamaica, summoned to a joint sitting by proclamation of Her Majesty the Queen, was opened in state at Gordon House yesterday morning by the Queen’s sister, Her Royal Highness the Princess Margaret. Before a full house of newly created Senators and of the Members of the House of Representatives and a glittering gathering of dignitaries from home and abroad. Princess Margaret read the Speech from the Throne in a clear musical voice, and with the assembly standing read the Queen’s personal message. In her message, the Queen recalled her visit to Jamaica some years ago and added, “It is with every good wish for the future that I warmly welcome Jamaica to the Commonwealth Family of Nations.” Her Royal Highness entered the legislative chamber of Gordon House on the arm of her husband, the Earl of Snowdon, and smiled to the legislative as she walked up the aisle to take her seat on the red-carpeted dais. MULTICOLOURED Her dress was of stiff white satin with the fitted bodice and the side panels of the bouffant skirt embellished in the embroidered crescent of diamonds, pearls and silver. The royal gown gleaned wide the medals of her orders and decorations which included the blue cash of the Royal Victorian Order. Her tiara and necklace were peals and silver. In the distinguished visitors gallery the multicoloured robes of delegates fromGhana and Nigeria, and the golden robe of the delegate from Ceylon, contrasted sharply with the formal greys and blacks of the representatives of European powers and the United States and the Jamaicans andWest Indians. Seated nearest the Bar in the places of honour were Mr Lyndon Johnson, Vice-President of the United States, and opposite him, Mr Hugh Fraser, Minister of Aviation in the British Government and a former Colonel-Affairs-Under-secretary. Said Princess Margaret to the assembled Parliament, on behalf of the Queen: “My Government in the United Kingdom has laid down its responsibilities and has ceased to have any authority in and over Jamaica after more than 300 years of close association with the island and her people. “But both my Government in the United Kingdom and my Government in Jamaica wish to maintain those bonds of friendship which have existed for over three centuries and have made it possible for Jamaica to proceed to independence peacefully and happily.” The Throne Speech added that with the attainment of Independence the Government of Jamaica has assumed responsibility for the management of foreign affairs and Commonwealth relations and for the defence of Jamaica. The Speech expressed the deep appreciation and pride of the Government of Jamaica for acceptance by the Commonwealth, Prime Ministers of Jamaica as a member JAMAICA CELEBRATES INDEPENDENCE – Princess opens first Parliament – Her Royal Highness in Throne speech: – UK and Jamaica wish to maintain bonds of friendship John Crow tink himown pickneywhite. TRANSLATION: Young John crows are white when hatched, but do not remain white. (Anderson, Cundall) EXPLANATION: What is one’s own is always the best. OLE TIME PEOPLE USED TO SAY ... PLEASE SEE CELEBRATES, 10 Her Royal Highness the Princess Margaret reads the Queen’s speech with which she declared open Jamaica’s first Parliament on August 7, 1962. On the dais with her are His Excellency the Governor General, Sir Kenneth Blackburne; the Earl of Snowdon and Lady Blackburne, with members of the Royal Party standing behind. In front of the dais are the bewigged Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Hon Tacius Golding, and the President of the Senate, the Hon Senator G.C. Campbell. In front of them are clerks of the Legislator and, at right, members of the Parliamentary Opposition. THE GLEANER ARCHIVES


NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 10 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 jamaica at ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE of the Commonwealth. “It will be my Government’s constant aim to develop still further its existing ties with the Commonwealth and to play its part in helping to live up to the aims for which the Commonwealth stands freedom, co-operation and progress.” The Throne Speech referred to the continuing problem of finding adequate employment opportunities particularly for young Jamaicans, as one of the serious challenges the Government faced, and pointed to the preparation of a comprehensive plan, designed to further development. The Speech concluded with congratulations to Jamaica’s leaders who guided the country so well in the past and good wishes to the Parliament. Long before the Royal party was due to set out for King’s House crowds line the route, they were thickest in the vicinity of Gordon House where a guard-of-honour of the First Battalion, the Jamaica Regiment, was in position. One thousand Jamaicans also celebrated at the Guildhall on Monday night. There were celebrations in Toronto, in Havana in New York, and other part of the United States and in fact wherever a Jamaican community exists. As a climax in the celebrations, it was announced last night that Jamaica had applied to join the United Nations. SCARLET ROBES Guests were seated outside the Bar on the floor of the chamber and in the galleries. The judges made a colourful picture as, in their scarlet robes and full-bottomed wigs, they filled in headed by the Chief Justice, the Hon Sir Colin MacGregor. Members of the Senate, led by the President, the Hon C.C. Campbell, and of the House of Representatives, led by the be wigged Speaker, the Hon Tacius Golding, then came in and took their places to hear the proclamation summoning Parliament read by the Clerk, Mr Dossy Carberry. The Lord Bishop of Jamaica, the Rt Rev Percival Gibson, then led the assembly in prayers and blessed the new Parliament. Then came the great moment as the Princess entered the chamber escorted by Lord Snowdon and preceded by the Sergeant at Arms. They were followed by His Excellency the Governor General Sir Kenneth Blackburne and Lady Blackburne and other members of CELEBRATES CONTINUED FROM 8 Stranger no know where da deep water in de pass TRANSLATION: A stranger does not know where the deep water is. (Beckwith) EXPLANATION: A caution against undertaking to do something you don’t fully understand. (Anderson, Cundall) OLE TIME PEOPLE USED TO SAY ... PLEASE SEE CELEBRATES, 12


NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 12 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 Cindy Breakspeare wins Miss World 1976 ‘WORLD QUEEN’ jamaica at ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE Shoes alone know if stocking hab hole TRANSLATION: Shoes alone know if the stocking have holes. (Beckwith) EXPLANATION: The wearer alone knows where the shoe pinches. (Anderson Cundall) OLE TIME PEOPLE USED TO SAY ... the Royal party. To the sound of a fanfare, they were received at the Bar of the House by the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, then they moved in procession to the dais. When they were seated, Mr Carberry read the Letters Patent under the Royal Sign Manual and Signet empowering the Princess to open the First Parliament of Jamaica. The document rested on an open red case containing the Great Seal. The Hon Si r Alexander Bustamante, Prime Minister, then rose and mounted the dais Speech which she read … Sir Alexander resigned to the dais to receive it from the Princess and handed it to the Clerk. The assembly then rose to hear the personal message from Her Majesty the Queen. When the Princess had completed this, she declared her intention to present the Constitutional instruments to the Prime Minister, who returned to the dais to receive it. Sit Alexander then made his first speech as Prime Minister, thanking the Queen for he message. MEMORABLE “I speak for all in Jamaica when I say that we are extremely happy that Her Royal Highness has been able to be present on this great occasion to represent Her Majesty,”Sir Alexander said. He added: “I am deeply honoured that it has fallen to me to receive today from the hand of Her Royal Highness the Constitutional Instruments which are the symbol of our independence.” Seconding the address of thanks, the Leader of the Opposition Mr Norman Manley referred to “this memorable first meeting of the Parliament of independent Jamaica” and joined in expressing the pleasure it had given Jamaicans to have Princess Margaret “no stranger to Jamaica but an old friend to be with us to represent Her Majesty the Queen”. Mr Manley affirmed that Jamaica had come to independence prepared and ready to shoulder her new responsibilities and he believed“united in a single hope that they might make their small country a safe and happy home for all the people”. He believed that as an independent people Jamaicans could somanage themselves as to demonstrate one day how by making their great motto “Out of Many One People” come to speak the truth about themselves, they could become a worthwhile and shining example of the sort of worldmen sometimes dreamed to live in. Loud applause from the gathering followed Mr Manley’s speech. Ceremony over, Princess Margaret and the Royal party left the chamber to return to King’s House. And the members of Jamaica’s First Parliament left to continue the Independence celebrations. QUEEN’S MESSAGE: I WARMLY WELCOME JAMAICA TO COMMONWEALTH In personal message to the Jamaican people read by Princess Margaret at the state opening of Parliament yesterday, Her Majesty the Queen said she was sure that Jamaica would have a vital contribution to make to the cause of the fuller cooperation, understanding the tolerance far beyond the immediate area of the world in which the island is situated. Text of the Queen’s message follows: “I have it in command of The Queen to read you the following message from Her Majesty to her People in Jamaica. “I am very happy that my sister should bemy personal representative at the celebrations to commemorate the independence of your country. “I remember well my visit some years ago to your lovely island and the waves, welcome which you gave tome. My sister who has also visited you before has, I know, greatly looked forward to being with you as on this day in Jamaica’s history. “It is with every good wish for the future that I warmly welcome Jamaica to the Commonwealth family of Nations. I am sure that your country, which has already given an example to the world of how people of many varied origins and traditions may live together in harmony, will have a vital contribution to make to the cause of fuller cooperation understanding and tolerance far beyond the immediate area of the world in which it is situated. “I pray that Godwill bless and keep your country in all the years that lie ahead.” CELEBRATES CONTINUED FROM 10


NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 14 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 jamaica at ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE Too much si-dun bruk breeches. TRANSLATION: Sitting down too much wears out one’s trousers. (Anderson, Cundall) EXPLANATION: Idleness leads to wants. (Anderson, Cundall) OLE TIME PEOPLE USED TO SAY ... The arrival of Princess Margaret for the celebrations Princess Margaret steps down the gangway of the BCAC airliner that brought her from London to Kingston for the Jamaica Independence celebrations on Friday morning, August 3, 1962. Behind her is the Earl of Snowdon, followed by Miss Fiona Myddelton, lady-in-waiting. Princess Margaret smiles as she talks with Norman Manley, leader of the Opposition, who was presented to her shortly after her arrival at Palisadoes Airport on Friday morning, August 3, 1962. The premier, the Hon Alexander Bustamante, looks on. At right, wife of the attorney general, is being presented to the Earl of Snowdon. Princess Margaret visited the University Chapel on August 4, 1962. Here Prof David Stewart, MBE, professor of obstetrics and gynaecology and senior dean of the UWI, is presented to her. Also in the picture are (from left) Mrs Gloria Lannaman, president-elect of the Guild of Undergraduates; Mr W.E. Gocking, librarian and chairman of the chapel committee; and the Hon Hector Wynter, director of extra-mural studies and chairman of the university’s independence celebration committee. Beside the princess is the pro-vice-chancellor, Dr Phillip Sherlock, GBE, who was first presented to the princess and in turn made the other presentations. PHOTOS FROMTHE GLEANER ARCHIVES The Earl of Snowdon and Premier Alexander Bustamante exchange a few words during the period while HRH Princess Margaret inspected the guard of honour at the Palisadoes Airport.


NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 16 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 jamaica at ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE Hungry hungry and full full no trabel same pass. TRANSLATION: The hungry belly and the full belly do not walk the same road. EXPLANATION: The poor man and the rich man go different ways. (Anderson Cundall) OLE TIME PEOPLE USED TO SAY ... 1962 Independence celebration Lowering of the Union Jack 1962. Jamaica Independence Float 1962. PHOTOS FROM THE GLEANER ARCHIVES MORE ON PAGE 18


NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 18 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 jamaica at ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE Raising of the Jamaican flag – 1962. The Minister of Development and Welfare, Hon Edward Seaga (left), presenting to the Prime Minister, Hon Sir Alexander Bustamante, the first framed copy of the quality colour poster produced by the Government Public Relations Office as part of the literature prepared by that department in connection with the recent Independence Celebrations, at the Prime Minister’s Office. An interpretation of the Haitian dance done by the Mandeville Creative Dance Group at the Independence Jamboree at Pepper, St Elizabeth, in 1962. A cake made for the Independence celebrations. ‘FREEDOM JIG’: Completely captured by the spirit of Independence, a woman dances by herself during the street dancing held at Grants Pen Road. The music for her “solo” was provided by Count Ossie and his band. THIS WAS THE SCENE at Grants Pen Road with persons celebrating Independence Day on Monday, August 6, 1962, by dancing in the streets. In the background is the truck on which Count Casie and his band provided the music for the happy folk to twist, jive and rock. A section of the crowd, estimated at 5,000, which attended the St Thomas Parish Fete at Lyssons Recreation Centre, near Morant Bay, on Thursday, August 9, 1962, for the Independence celebration. At right is the Royal Canadian Navy Band, led by Bandmaster Ernest Spiers, rendering one of its pieces. PHOTOS FROM THE GLEANER ARCHIVES A solemn Pontifical mass which marks the island’s Independence was celebrated at Holy Trinity Cathedral. 1962 Independence celebration


NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 20 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 jamaica at BUILDING A NATION OF GREATNESS CHRONOLOGY OF JAMAICA’S PRIME MINISTERS The Right Excellent Sir Alexander Bustamante 1962-1967 The Most Honourable Sir Donald Sangster 1967-1967 The Most Honourable Hugh Lawson Shearer 1967-1972 The Most Honourable Edward Seaga 1980-1989 The Most Honourable Michael Manley 1972-1980; 1989-1992 TheMost Honourable Percival Noel James Patterson 1992-2006 The Honourable Orette Bruce Golding 2007-2011 The Most Honourable Portia Lucretia Simpson Miller 2006-2007; 2012-2016 The Most Honourable Andrew Holness 2016-Present


NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 22 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 Rain neber fall a’ one man door TRANSLATION: Rain never falls at one man’s door (only). (Beckwith) EXPLANATION: When it rains it rains on all. (Anderson, Cundall) OLE TIME PEOPLE USED TO SAY ... jamaica at BUILDING A NATION OF GREATNESS Published August 2, 2012 Valerie Dixon/Contributor MANY PERSONS, when asked about Jamaica’s achievements over the past 50 years since Independence, are of the view that we have achieved some positive milestones over the period. It is felt that despite being a stratified society, especially before 1962, we have managed to become a reasonably cohesive society, despite the turbulent period 1972 to 1980, which took a bit of struggle to bring us back from the brink of political hegemony. The free market system was restored, and once again, the creativity of ordinary Jamaicans surfaced to the fore. Historically, the former slaves were never compensated for their years of giving free labour. This is in comparison to the ruling planter class, which received reparations for the loss of their labour force. So ordinary Jamaicans, from back then until now, still rely on their creativity and intelligence to survive, and in many instances, the ruling class depends on this creativity as it is able to fund and capitalise it to their benefit. We just need to examine who owns and controls (for the most part) the vast repertoire of ska, reggae, and dancehall music that originated fromordinary Jamaicans. The current administration has promised to do something tangible towards protecting the country’s intellectual property rights, copyrights, trademarks, and Brand Jamaica. This is good news in this our jubilee year. WOMEN HAVE ADVANCED Our women, especially those in high positions, have done extremely well. We have had our first female prime minister since 2006, and she has been back at the helm since 2011. Other firsts include first female children’s advocate – 2006; first female attorney general and minister of justice – 2007; first female director of public prosecutions – 2007; and our first female auditor general – 2008. Housing stock has improved tremendously across every stratum of the society. Since 1962, there have been improvements in the quality of materials used, as well as in the technology employed, which is evident in our design, form, and function and in the vast array of amenities used in all types of housing units. Our architects and builders are among the best in the world. We are 50 andwe love the fact that we have established some great institutions, such as the Edna Manley College of theVisual and Performing Arts, which now attracts students fromall corners of the globe to study dance, music, drama, and the visual arts. Our National Art Gallery, which showcases our great artists, can stand with the best in the world. We have the only children’s hospital in the Caribbean, and our locally trained doctors and nurses are in great demand locally and internationally. INTERNATIONAL INFLUENCE Our national hero, Marcus Mosiah Garvey, stands tall, especially over the past 50 years. Although controversial, he cannot be pushed aside from his position of being a pioneer in the pan-African Movement. His views on pan-Africanism influenced a wide variety of famous pan-Africanists and Black Nationalists since 1962 – leaders such as Julius Nyerere, first president of Tanzania in 1962; and Jomo Kenyatta, first president of Kenya in 1964. Others influenced by Marcus Garvey are Nelson Mandela, first black president of South Africa; MalcolmX; and Jamaican reggae singers Burning Spear (Winston Rodney) and Bob Marley, to name just a few. Since Independence, we have more tertiary institutions that offer accredited degrees and other training programmes that give greater scope and opportunities for economic development. Many ordinary Jamaicans have gained access to high-quality training to enable them to acquire marketable skills and competencies to be used locally, nationally, and globally. Our democracy is strong and we transition from one government to the next with ease. We have no fear of the military seizing power as the officers of every rank are loyal first and foremost to the Jamaican Constitution, and this overrides any individual’s ambition. Valerie Dixon is a public affairs commentator based in central Jamaica. Celebrating achievements since 1962 Marcus Mosiah Garvey Edna Manley College of the Visual and Performing Arts. CubaPresidentDr Fidel Castroemphasises a point during the press conference he gave at the Pegasus hotel, shortly before departure at the end of his six-day visit in 1977. THE GLEANER ARCHIVES Fidel Castro visits Jamaica 1977 ‘HOLA, FIDEL’

INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA 60 AND BEYOND FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 ADVERTISEMENT 23 We are proud to be a part of Jamaica's continued evolution as a strong, formidable nation. It has been our pleasure to serve our vibrant, "likkle but tallawah" island as it continues to captivate hearts and minds across the globe. Happy Diamond Jubilee Jamaica! ® Registered trademark of the Bank of Nova Scotia.

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 24 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 jamaica at BUILDING A NATION OF GREATNESS 1 Influenced the Global Civil Rights Movement: Jamaica has contributed to the civil rights movements taking place across the world from the early 1960s onwards through the philosophical ideas purported by Jamaican national hero, Marcus Garvey, a black activist who preached about black racial identity and repatriation to Africa. Marcus Garvey became one of the most influential leaders emerging from Jamaica during the 1920s and ‘30s. Garvey’s advancement of pan-African philosophies in UNIA, combined with his own beliefs became known as Garveyism. This philosophy inspired the Rastafari Movement and the Nation of Islam. Garvey’s ideas also had a huge influence on the views of American civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, who fought for equality for blacks in America and across the world. Garvey’s political actions and beliefs gave rise to social movements of activism around the world. These grassroots movements led to further advancements in the field of civil rights worldwide. 2 Through Reggae Led Global Movement for Equality, Peace & Justice: Through the powerful message embedded in the island’s indigenous music Reggae and popularised by its iconic emissaries such as Bob Marley and Peter Tosh, Jamaica has been at the forefront of a global movement for equality, peace and justice since the 1970s. Songs such as Marley’s One Love – named by the BBC as the greatest song of the 2oth century – and ‘War’ resonated with oppressed peoples on every continent and inspired a desire to fight for and protect their rights. Indeed, the expression ‘One Love’ is a widely understood expression of love and respect for all peoples regardless of race, creed or colour, Jamaica’s gift to the world. 3 Played a lead role in the global movement against apartheid in South Africa: It would be remiss not to talk about the role Jamaica played in the anti-apartheidmovement across the world. Jamaica’s historical connection to Africa meant that the plight of their African brothers and sisters suffering through apartheid in South Africa did not go unnoticed. Through protests and petitions and songs, Jamaica kept the anti-apartheid issue on the global agenda and forced action by other nations. 4 Gave the world entirely new forms of music – Reggae & Ska: Originating in Jamaica in the early 1960s, Reggae is noted for its message of love, equality and justice. Thanks to its most iconic emissary, Bob Marley, Reggae took root around the world. Today, Reggae artistes such as Jimmy Cliff, Burning Spear, Diana King and Shaggy are well known across the world and continue to spread Reggae’s message of peace and love. Indeed, in 1999, to recognise the start of the new millennium, Time Magazine named Bob Marley’s album ‘Exodus’ the best album of the 20th century while British broadcaster BBC named his famous record ‘One Love’, ‘Song of the Century’. Ska itself preceded Rocksteady and Reggae, originating in Jamaica in the early 1950s, combining elements of Caribbean mento and calypso with American jazz and blues. In the 1960s, Ska was the dominant music form in Jamaica, taking a hold among the urban, young and hip in London and elsewhere. 5 Introduced to the world an entirely new religion – Rastafari: Developed in Jamaica in the 1930s, Rastafarians revere the late emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, support repatriation to Africa, the home of their ancestors and racial pride and identity. The followers, which now number in the thousands around the world, sport the distinctive dreadlocks hairstyle, observe various rites and customs and use weed (marijuana) as a religious sacrament. Many of Jamaica’s Reggae artistes are Rastafarians and their popularity and fame around the world helped to popularise and contribute to the expansion of Rasta culture globally. 6 Gave global popularity to a whole new cultural lifestyle (Rasta Culture). Attendant to the global embeddedness of Rastafari was a whole new culture and lifestyle, including the sporting of dreadlocks. Although this hairstyle has its origins in the far east, and among the Masai tribe in Africa, it was the Jamaican Rastafarian that gave it global popularity. Jamaica is also the country to which ‘dreadlocks’ is most associated. Rasta also introduced a whole new fashion embodied in fatigue wear and the red, green and gold of the Ethiopian flag, which Rastas adopted and a unique language. This lifestyle continues to resonate with urban youths on every continent. 7 Gave the world sought-after export products: Although Jamaican cuisine remains largely unknown around the world, Jamaican export products such Blue Mountain Coffee, Red Stripe Beer, Jerk Spice have been fully established worldwide, with Jamaican meat pies – patties – growing in popularity. Blue Mountain Coffee, for example, is one of the most expensive and sought-after coffees in the world, with Japan importing the highest percentage – some 80 per cent. Jamaican Jerk has made its name globally, with its hot and spicy flavour a major appeal. Not many beers and rums are as well known as Red Stripe Beer, as well as Wray & Nephew and Appleton Jamaica Rum are across the world. The latter noted as one of the top sellers among the elite in Europe. Jamaican singer-songwriter Robert Nesta Marley, OM, famously known as Bob Marley. 10THINGS JAMAICA HAS CONTRIBUTED TO THE WORLD PLEASE SEE 10 THINGS, 26

INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA 60 AND BEYOND FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 ADVERTISEMENT 25 Jamaica land of beauty, We promise faithfully To serve thee with our talents And bring our gifts to thee. Jamaica we will always In honour of thy name, Work steadfastly and wisely And never bring thee shame. Forever and Gracefully Yours, Happy

NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 26 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 When ashes cold, dog sleep dere. TRANSLATION: When the ashes are cold, even a dog can sleep there. (Beckwith) EXPLANATION: Circumstances alter cases. (Anderson, Cundall) OLE TIME PEOPLE USED TO SAY ... 8 Transformed the sport of Track and Field: Known as the ‘sprint factory’ of the world, Jamaica has produced some of the world’s greatest runners. Athletes such as Merlene Ottey, Veronica CampbellBrown, Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce, and particularly Usain Bolt, the fastest man alive, have helped to transform the entire field of athletics from a fading sport to the most popular event at the Olympic Games. Breaking record after record, Jamaican athletes have set new bars of achievement in world athletics and have given the world new sprint techniques and coaching tactics. 9 Inspired confidence and courage through bobsled: Since its historic participation in theWinter Olympic Games in Calgary, Canada, in 1988, although hailing from a country where snow does not exist, the Jamaican bobsled team has been an example of courage, confidence and triumph over adversity for many people around the world. Many other nations fromwith tropical climates have since participated in theWinter Games, drawing inspiration from Jamaica. At the Sochi Winter Olympics in 2015, the Jamaica bobsled teamwas the centre of international media attention for the enduring glory they bring to the Games. 10 Gave the world one of the most inspiring films of the last century, ‘Cool Runnings ’. The inspired participation of the Jamaican bobsled team at the Winter Olympics in 1988 became the subject of the popular Disney film ‘Cool Runnings’. This is perhaps the most well-known film set in Jamaica and its human plot of courage and confidence and optimism continues to capture the imagination of people around the world. It is worth mentioning that the Jamaican film‘The Harder They Come’, starring reggae singer, Jimmy Cliff, helped to project Jamaica around the world, exposing life in the reggae industry and the subculture in which it finds its message. Taken from https://oneloverepublic. 10 THINGS CONTINUED FROM 24 From left: Jamaica’s Asafa Powell, Nesta Carter, Usain Bolt and Michael Frater celebrate their gold medal after the men’s 4x100-metre relay final in Beijing in 2008. Members of the cast of ‘Cool Runnings’, the popular Disney Film about the exploits of the Jamaica bobsled team at the Winter Olympics in 1988. PHOTOS FROMTHE GLEANER ARCHIVES jamaica at BUILDING A NATION OF GREATNESS


NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 28 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 Finger neber say “look here”, him say “look yonder”. TRANSLATION: Finger never says “look here”, he says “look yonder”. EXPLANATION: People do not usually point out their own faults. OLE TIME PEOPLE USED TO SAY ... jamaica at UNIQUELY JAMAICAN LIKKLE BUT TALLAWAH! Published Monday, July 23, 1962 MISS JAMAICA 1962 was chosen early on Sunday morning at the Myrtle Bank Hotel. She was 19-year-old Marlene Murray, who wore the ‘Miss Flamingo’ sash in the contest. Runners-up were Nolia Skipton, Miss Issa’s, and Barbara DeCasseres, Miss Austin. Poised and radiant,the 5’5½” queen who tips the scales at 1261b, was elegant in a Flossie Thomas creation of ivory peau-de-soie which accentuated every inch of her 36-25-37 figure. Her ‘Enchantment Gown’, re-embroidered with Alencon lace, and heavily studded with sequins, ended in a very lowcut back. A draped peplum at the back of the floor-length skirt ended in a sweeping train. A diamante tiara added sparkle to her bouffant hairdo. Second-prize winner Nolia Skipton chose a white gown of hand-clipped guipure lace embroidered with bugle beads, pearls and sequins, with a flurry of heavily shirred organza from the hipline to the ankle. At the hipline she wore three satin roses. A diamante tiara highlighted her bouffant hairdo and she wore white, elbow-length gloves. DIFFICULT Barbara DeCasseres was resplendent in a Joyce creation of white peau-de-soie appliqued in Moussllline de sole. The gently moulded bodice had scooped neckline. The sheath skirt had a full-length overskirt, which swirled gracefully in a slight train and was decorated with a pattern of seed pearls and sequins. Barbara, who was the only contestant without a tiara, wore white, elbow-length gloves. To background music supplied by Lennie Hibbert and his combo, the 14 contestants paraded individually on the T-shaped platform, which was decorated with cloth of the colours of the national flag and plaques of the Jamaica coat of arms. The crowd of over one thousand cheered their favourite contestants, while Messrs Gordon Brandon, Keith Forbes, Raymond Jackson and Garth Moody helped the girls on and off the stage. MCTony Verity had a difficult time keeping the impatient crowd quiet while the judges deliberated for 38 Marlene Murray – Miss Jamaica 1962 Miss Jamaica 1962 Marlene Murray (Miss Flamingo Hotel), flanked by her runners-up, Skipton (Miss Issa’s) (right) and Barbara DeCasseres (Miss Austin) at the Coronation Ball, held at the Myrtle Bank Hotel on Saturday, July 21, 1962. THE GLEANER ARCHIVES PLEASE SEE MURRAY, 30


NAME OF FEATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 30 INDEPENDENCE SPECIAL: JAMAICA @ 60 AND B YOND F ATURE | THE GLEANER | SUNDAY, JULY 31, 2022 If you get your han’ in a debil mout’, tek it out.” TRANSLATION: If you put your hand in the devil’s mouth, take it out carefully. EXPLANATION: Act cautiously in getting out of difficulty. OLE TIME PEOPLE USED TO SAY ... minutes. Meanwhile, President of the committee Ken Rhino spoke of the exemplary behaviour of the girls, and explained that Saturday night’s contest marked the tenth anniversary of the judging under the present committee. SPECIAL PRIZES The judges, Mr D.T.M. Girvan, chairman; Messrs Charles Vendryes, Dial Harian; Mrs Stanley Motta; Mrs Gai Eaton and Miss Vida Menzies, returned to the audience. The girls again paraded and took their positions on the right and left of the stage. The contestants were Pauline Fuller (Miss Portland Chamber of Commerce). Fay Timoll (Miss Caribbean Recordings), Lorna Alexander (Miss Roux), Barbara DeCasseres (Miss Austin), Joyce Reid (Miss Vent Vue), Patricia Ritch ( Miss General Tyres), Ruby Meghon (Miss Manchester Chamber of Commerce), Nolia Skipton (Miss Flamingo), Violet Meghon (Miss National Car Rental), Angela Hanna (Miss Avis-Rent-a-Car), Allison Bowen (Miss Ocho Rios Hotel), Juliette Ritchie (Miss NuWear Garments), and Doreen Turner (Miss Hermine’s Garments). Mr Girvan explained that it was a difficult task deciding on how the prizes should be distributed. The judges’decision for the number-one place, he said, was unanimous, but the others had posed a problem. He thanked the audience and the many persons involved in any way with the contest, before reading out the special prizes. The prize for the prettiest eyes went to DoreenTurner; that for best figure to Marlene Murray; prettiest smile toViolet Meghoo; hair, to Nolia Skipton; hands, to Joyce Reid; and most radiant complexion to Juliette Ritchie. APPLAUSE The judges’ choice of the queen was greeted with wild applause, and sponsors Mr and Mrs Pat Ferriera were among the first members of the audience to rush on stage to add their congratulations. The ‘Queen’ ascended her throne of light pink and silver and was soon flanked by the runners-up seated on smaller thrones of light green and silver, while fourth- and fifth- place holders Juliette Ritchie and Doreen Turner, respectively, stood behind, one on either side. Miss Marguerite Lewars, Miss Jamaica 1961, handed out the special prizes and place the jewelled crown on the queen’s head. After placing the scarlet cape around the queen’s shoulders, Miss Lewars also presented her with the 24”-high Charm Trophy, donated in perpetuity by Seprod Ltd, which she will keep for one year until her reign expires. Miss Jamaica 1962 then presented Miss Lewars with a replica of the CharmTrophy which she will keep permanently. Mr Vere Johns and Mr KenWilliamson, sales manager of John Crook Ltd, presented the new queen with the keys to the 19625 Austin Henley Mark 11 sports car, which was awarded as first prize. Miss Jamaica 1962, in her speech, thanked her sponsors and expressed her gratitude for the confidence placed in her, and promised to be a worthy ambassador of Jamaica. The queen is a past student of Westwood High School andWest India Training College, and is the manageress of the Furniture Department of H.W. Charley & Co. She is the daughter of Mrs Inez Murray of 7 Trevennion Road, Cross Roads. Mrs Nadi Wynter of the Contest Committee presented prizes for entering, and baskets of flowers to the other contestants. The girls were all awarded one-year passes for two to the Regal Theatre and gifts fromMax Factor, Revlon and NuWear Garments. Members of the audience and the other contestants gathered on stage to congratulate the new queen as she began her yearlong reign. MURRAY CONTINUED FROM 28 The Miss Jamaica 1962 contestants at the Arawak Hotel in July 1962. In front row (from left) are Ken Rhino, chief organiser of the Miss Jamaica Beauty Contest; Nick Brimo, administrativemanager of the Issa chain of hotels; Allison Bowen (Miss Ocho Rios Hotels Association); Fay Timoll (Miss Caribbean Recording); Barbara de Casseres (Miss Austin); Nolia Skipton (Miss Issas); Ruby Meghoo (Miss Manchester Chamber of Commerce); and Mr John Kernan, general manager of the Arawak Hotel. In the second row (from left) are Joy Reid (Miss Vent Vue); Marlene Murray (Miss Flamingo Hotel); Doreen Turner (Miss Vent Vue); Marlene Murray (Miss Flamingo Hotel); Doreen Turner (Miss Hermine’s Garments), Lorna Aexander (Miss Roux), Violet Meghoo (Miss National Car Rental) and Julyiet Ritchie (Miss Nu Wear Garments). In back are Pauline Fuller (Miss Portland Chambers of Commerce); Angela Hanna (Miss Avis Rent-A-Car); and Patricia Ritch, (Miss General Tyres). Mr Brimo, Mr Kernan and Miss Bowen were hosts of the contestants at the hotel. Bob Marley (centre) urges then Prime Minister Michael Manley (left) and then Opposition Leader Edward Seaga to shake hands at the One Love Peace Concert at the National Stadium on April 22 1978. THE GLEANER ARCHIVES Bob Marley Peace Concert 1978 ‘ONE LOVE’ jamaica at UNIQUELY JAMAICAN LIKKLE BUT TALLAWAH!